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Natalie A. Brown, Michael B. Devlin and Andrew C. Billings

This study explores the implications of the sports communication theory of fan identification and the divisions often developed between identifying with a single athlete and the bonds developed for a sport as a whole. Using the fastest growing North American sport, mixed martial arts (MMA)—more specifically, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC)—differences in levels of fan identification were examined in relationship to attitudes toward individual athletes and attitudes toward the UFC organization. An online survey of 911 respondents produced a highly representative sample of the UFC’s current audience demographics. Results showed significant differences in fan identify between gender, age, and sensationseeking behaviors, suggesting that distinct demographic variables may influence the role that fan identity has not only in sports media consumption but also in future event consumption. Implications and ramifications for future theoretical sports communication research and sports marketing are postulated.

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Gregg Bennett, Robin K. Henson and James Zhang

The rise in consumer and corporate interest in action sports, also known as extreme sports, has been phenomenal. The apparent popularity of action sports, when combined with the sponsorships, endorsements, and advertising dollars they have quickly garnered, lends itself to scientific inquiry regarding the level and nature of public interest. The purpose of this study was to examine Generation Y's perceptions of action sports, with a specific focus on the expressed popularity of action sports and the relationship between action sports interest and use of the media. The 39-item Action Sports Questionnaire (ESQ) was constructed to examine Generation Y perceptions of action sports, sports related viewing preferences, and sports related media usage among middle and high school aged students. The present findings suggested that these members of the Generation Y (n = 367) niche market preferred action sports over the traditional sports of basketball and baseball. Respondents also indicated stronger preference for soccer, but would prefer to watch the X-Games over the World Cup. There is an indication that soccer and action sports are more popular among the younger generation than some traditional team sports. Males were slightly more supportive that action sports would become more popular in the future, and the male respondents were likewise more familiar with action sports. More members of Generation Y watch action sports than their predecessors, and they likewise tend to be optimistic about the future of action sports if they watch events on television.

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Ken Payne and Curtis Edge

really good example. He has taken steps to make sure he has the public image to make him a big star. He is one who is known more in the U.S. than in Europe. Interviewer : Extreme-sports categories such as half-pipe, slopestyle, and big air. What kind of difference did the inclusion of those events make

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Jonathan A. Jensen and T. Bettina Cornwell

also consistent with the image transfer model of Gwinner ( 1997 ), who advocated not only for a direct functional similarity but also for an “image-related” similarity, whereby a soft drink brand targeting a younger demographic may support a music or extreme sports tour seeking the “similarity that

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Timothy Kellison

B.P. McCullough & T.B. Kellison (Eds.), Routledge handbook of sport and the environment (pp.  418 – 428 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Brymer , E. , Downey , G.J. , & Gray , T.L. ( 2009 ). Extreme sports as a precursor to environmental sustainability . Journal of Sport & Tourism

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Kevin Filo, David Fechner and Yuhei Inoue

. ( 2003 ). Participation in philanthropic activities: Donating money and time . Journal of Consumer Policy, 26, 43 – 73 . doi: 10.1023/A:1022626529603 Brymer , E. , & Schweitzer , R.D. ( 2017 ). Evoking the ineffable: The phenomenology of extreme sports . Psychology of Consciousness: Theory

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Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington

implementation of innovative scoring techniques of extreme sports. Although officials embraced technological advancements as supportive of their jobs, athletes were concerned that standardization would inhibit their creativity and individuality. Tensions may also arise from questions of equity through the