capacity of these processes to help cultivate internalized motivation ( Butryn et al., 2015 ). The current study investigated the proposal that cognitive acceptance and behavioral commitment may facilitate autonomous ”extrinsic” motivation (autonomous EM) for PA, thus supporting long-term PA behavior
Examining the Relationships Among Cognitive Acceptance, Behavioral Commitment, Autonomous Extrinsic Motivation, and Physical Activity
Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves, and Ken Hodge
An Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation Scale for the Youth Sport Setting: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Maureen R. Weiss, Brenda Jo Bredemeier, and Richard M. Shewchuk
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation for use in the sport domain. Third- through sixth-grade boys and girls (N = 155) attending a children's summer sports camp were administered Harter's (1981b) measure of motivational orientation with items reworded to accommodate the sport setting. The data were then subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis for the purpose of testing the fit of the sport motivation data to the original 5-factor structural model identified by Harter for motivation in the cognitive domain. While the goodness-of-fit statistics suggested some resemblance, a number of other diagnostic indicators obtained from the analysis revealed that extensive modifications would be necessary before the Harter model could be considered an adequate representation of the underlying covariance structure of the sport motivation data. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in six interpretable factors that were somewhat different from Harter's original model in terms of hern loadings and factor structure. Moreover, the developmental trends in motivation for third- through sixth-grade children slightly deviated from those reported by Harter. Theoretical, practical, and methodological implications of this study are discussed.
Toward a New Measure of Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Amotivation in Sports: The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)
Luc G. Pelletier, Kim M. Tuson, Michelle S. Fortier, Robert J. Vallerand, Nathalie M. Briére, and Marc R. Blais
A new measure of motivation toward sport has been developed in French, namely the Echelle de Motivation vis-à-vis les Sports. Two studies were conducted to translate and validate this new measure in English. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) consists of seven subscales that measure three types of Intrinsic Motivation (IM; IM to Know, IM to Accomplish Things, and IM to Experience Stimulation), three forms of regulation for Extrinsic Motivation (Identified, Introjected, and External), and Amotivation. The first study confirmed the factor structure of the scale and revealed a satisfactory level of internal consistency. Correlations among the subscales revealed a simplex pattern confirming the self-determination continuum and the construct validity of the scale. Gender differences were similar to those obtained with the French-Canadian version. The more self-determined forms of motivation were associated with more positive responses on related consequences. In a second study, the SMS was administered on two occasions and revealed adequate test-retest reliability.
An Examination of Sixth Graders’ Self-Determined Motivation and Learning in Physical Education
Haichun Sun and Ang Chen
Self-determination theory (SDT), when applied in education, emphasizes helping learners internalize extrinsic motivation so as to regulate their learning behavior from an amotivation state to intrinsic motivation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SDT components and learning in middle school physical education. Sixth grade students (n = 242) from 15 randomly selected schools provided data on SDT and their knowledge and skill learning achievement as assessed using a pre- and post-measurement design. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that extrinsically regulated motivations and intrinsic motivation contributed little to knowledge and skill achievement and amotivation negatively related to knowledge improvement. Given the fact that the data represented learner responses to an activity centered program, the findings imply that when learning objectives are vague, learners may be motivated to participate in classes but their participation may not contribute much to knowledge and skill achievement.
A Motivational Model of Performance-Enhancing Substance Use in Elite Athletes
Eric G. Donahue, Paule Miquelon, Pierre Valois, Claude Goulet, André Buist, and Robert J. Vallerand
Very little research has been done so far on the psychological determinants of performance-enhancing substance use in sports. The purpose of this study was to propose and test a motivational model of performance-enhancing substance use with elite athletes (N = 1,201). The model posits that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward sport predict, respectively, positive and negative sportspersonship orientations, which in turn negatively predict the use of performance-enhancing substances. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward sport, sportspersonship orientations, and performance-enhancing substance use in the last 12 months. Findings supported the motivational model. The present findings support the role of intrinsic motivation and sportspersonship orientations in preventing athletes from engaging in unethical behavior such as the use of performance-enhancing substances. Future research should seek to replicate this model with professional and Olympic athletes.
Coaching Climates and the Destructive Effects of Mastery-Avoidance Achievement Goals on Situational Motivation
David E. Conroy, Miranda P. Kaye, and J. Douglas Coatsworth
The present research tested a model of social-cognitive influences on situational motivation (i.e., youths’ reasons for participating in sport at a given moment in time) via youths’ 2 × 2 achievement goals. Boys and girls (N = 165) participating in a summer swim league completed measures of their achievement goals and situational motivation on multiple occasions during a 6-week period; they also rated the coaching climate at the end of the season. All Situational Motivation Scale responses exhibited acceptable levels of longitudinal factorial invariance. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that intrinsic motivation and identified regulation did not appear to change over the course of the season; however, external regulation and amotivation increased significantly during that period. Youths’ perceptions of an avoidance-oriented coaching climate predicted corresponding residualized change in their own achievement goals over the season. Additionally, residualized change in youths’ mastery-avoidance goals (i.e., focus on avoiding self-referenced incompetence) was positively linked to the rate at which external regulation and amotivation scores changed.
Learning in Physical Education: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective
Haichun Sun, Weidong Li, and Bo Shen
The purpose of this study was to review the literature relevant to learning in physical education (PE) according to the self-determination theory (SDT). In this literature review, we first provide an overview of SDT. Second, we discuss students’ SDT-related motivational profiles in PE. Third, we illustrate the relationships among students’ perceptions of the nature of an autonomy-supportive or controlling learning environment, need satisfaction, and self-determined motivation. Fourth, we explore the impact of SDT on students’ learning in PE with respect to the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective learning domains. Finally, we articulate the pedagogical implications on the basis of the reviewed SDT research and future directions for SDT research in PE.
Perfectionism and Athlete Burnout in Junior Elite Athletes: The Mediating Role of Motivation Regulations
Paul R. Appleton and Andrew P. Hill
This study investigated whether motivation regulations mediate the relationship between socially prescribed and self-oriented dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-one (N = 231) elite junior athletes completed the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (Flett, Hewitt, Boucher, Davidson, & Munro, 2000), the Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier, Fortier, Valle-rand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (Raedeke & Smith, 2009). Multiple mediator regression analyses revealed that amotivation mediated the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout symptoms. Amotivation and intrinsic motivation emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and burnout symptoms. The findings suggest that patterns of motivation regulations are important factors in the perfectionism-athlete burnout relationship.
Exergaming as a Community Program for Older Adults: The Effects of Social Interaction and Competitive Information
Jinhui Li, Chen Li, Bing Xun Chia, Xinran Chen, Tan Phat Pham, and Yin-Leng Theng
; Osorio, Moffat, & Sykes, 2012 ). Satisfaction of the above three needs is essential for an individual’s self-determined motivation. SDT further distinguishes three main motivations based on the types of regulations and causality: intrinsic motivation , extrinsic motivation , and amotivation ( Deci
Self-Compassion and Reactions to a Recalled Exercise Lapse: The Moderating Role of Gender-Role Schemas
Alana Signore, Brittany N. Semenchuk, and Shaelyn M. Strachan
related to self-determined (and less extrinsic) motivation for exercise, which would position them to adhere to exercise ( Teixeira et al., 2012 ). Finally, self-compassion related to exercisers’ reports of greater reengagement in their exercise goal ( Semenchuk et al., 2018 ), which is not surprising