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Jeremy W. Noble, Janice J. Eng, and Lara A. Boyd

This study examined the effect of visual feedback and force level on the neural mechanisms responsible for the performance of a motor task. We used a voxelwise fMRI approach to determine the effect of visual feedback (with and without) during a grip force task at 35% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction. Two areas (contralateral rostral premotor cortex and putamen) displayed an interaction between force and feedback conditions. When the main effect of feedback condition was analyzed, higher activation when visual feedback was available was found in 22 of the 24 active brain areas, while the two other regions (contralateral lingual gyrus and ipsilateral precuneus) showed greater levels of activity when no visual feedback was available. The results suggest that there is a potentially confounding influence of visual feedback on brain activation during a motor task, and for some regions, this is dependent on the level of force applied.

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Bettina Brendel, Michael Erb, Axel Riecker, Wolfgang Grodd, Hermann Ackermann, and Wolfram Ziegler

The present study combines functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reaction time (RT) measurements to further elucidate the influence of syllable frequency and complexity on speech motor control processes, i.e., overt reading of pseudowords. Tying in with a recent fMRI-study of our group we focused on the concept of a mental syllabary housing syllable sized ready-made motor plans for high- (HF), but not low-frequency (LF) syllables. The RT-analysis disclosed a frequency effect weakened by a simultaneous complexity effect for HF-syllables. In contrast, the fMRI data revealed no effect of syllable frequency, but point to an impact of syllable structure: Compared with CV-items, syllables with a complex onset (CCV) yielded higher hemodynamic activation in motor “execution” areas (left sensorimotor cortex, right inferior cerebellum), which is at least partially compatible with our previous study. We discuss the role of the syllable in speech motor control.

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

influenced researchers’ understanding of the brain–behavior interaction during cognition. Despite its limited availability and high cost, fMRI has truly expanded our depth of knowledge over the past decade. With fMRI and advanced post-processing, we can now understand a pattern of normative brain metabolic

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Kim D. Barber Foss, Alexis B. Slutsky-Ganesh, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms, Janet E. Simon, Daniel K. Schneider, Neeru Jayanthi, Joseph D. Lamplot, Destin Hill, Mathew Pombo, Philip Wong, David A. Reiter, and Gregory D. Myer

its relationship to kinesiophobia in patients with PFP. To accomplish this, we administered 2 tests during brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for patients with PFP: (1) a modified Clarke test (experimental knee pain condition; noxious induction via experimenter patella pressure and

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Daniel T. Bishop, Michael J. Wright, Robin C. Jackson, and Bruce Abernethy

The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases for perceptual-cognitive superiority in a soccer anticipation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-nine participants lay in an MRI scanner while performing a video-based task in which they predicted an oncoming opponent’s movements. Video clips were occluded at four time points, and participants were grouped according to in-task performance. Early occlusion reduced prediction accuracy significantly for all participants, as did the opponent’s execution of a deceptive maneuver; however, high-skill participants were significantly more accurate than their low-skill counterparts under deceptive conditions. This perceptual-cognitive superiority was associated with greater activation of cortical and subcortical structures involved in executive function and oculomotor control. The contributions of the present findings to an existing neural model of anticipation in sport are highlighted.

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Jay P. Mehta, Matthew D. Verber, Jon A. Wieser, Brian D. Schmit, and Sheila M. Schindler-Ivens

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record human brain activity during slow (30 RPM), fast (60 RPM), passive (30 RPM), and variable rate pedaling. Ten healthy adults participated. After identifying regions of interest, the intensity and volume of brain activation in each region was calculated and compared across conditions (p < .05). Results showed that the primary sensory and motor cortices (S1, M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), and cerebellum (Cb) were active during pedaling. The intensity of activity in these areas increased with increasing pedaling rate and complexity. The Cb was the only brain region that showed significantly lower activity during passive as compared with active pedaling. We conclude that M1, S1, SMA, and Cb have a role in modifying continuous, bilateral, multijoint lower extremity movements. Much of this brain activity may be driven by sensory signals from the moving limbs.

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Michael D. Ferrell, Robert L. Beach, Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi, Marlyn Krch, and Bo Fernhall

Performance at one's highest personal level is often accompanied by a palpable, yet enigmatic sensation that many athletes refer to as the zone. Competitive athletes regularly acknowledge that their top performances are dependent on achieving a zone state of performance. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technologies were used in observing differing patterns of neural activation that occur among athletes during a hypnotically recalled zone-state performance of eight accomplished, competitive right-handed archers. These data were compared to each participant's respective fMRI data of a hypnotically assisted recall of a normal performance. Analysis of composite group data revealed significant (p = 0.05) neural activation of zone performance (ZP) over normal performance (NP), suggesting that performance in a zone state involves identifiable characteristics of neural processing. Perhaps this investigation might stimulate additional, more creative research in identifying a psychophysiological indicator of the zone phenomenon that would provide adequate justification for a training regimen providing a more reliable and sustained zone performance.

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Karlee Burns, Leah Sanford, Ryan Tierney, and Jane McDevitt

acute brain injury resulting from an impact event to the head or body. 1 , 2 Memory impairment (e.g., difficulty remembering, confusion) is a common symptom following mTBI. 3 Neuroimaging (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) has established that memory functions occur in the

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Brian D. Seiler, Eva V. Monsma, Roger Newman-Norlund, and Ryan Sacko

techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; e.g.,  Sharma & Baron, 2013 ) and electroencephalography (e.g.,  Galdo-Alvarez et al., 2016 ) to support theoretical notions of “functional equivalence” ( Farah, 1989 ; Johnson, 1982 ) between physical movement and imagery of those movements

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Louisa D. Raisbeck, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms, and Randy Schmitz

focus and motor skill may allow for more precise rehabilitation guidelines based on specific neural mechanisms. To date this has been done primarily using fine motor movements (key pressing tasks) due to the logistics of performing a gross motor movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI