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Karen L. Schmidt, Jessie M. Van Swearingen, and Rachel M. Levenstein

The context of voluntary movement during facial assessment has significant effects on the activity of facial muscles. Using automated facial analysis, we found that healthy subjects instructed to blow produced lip movements that were longer in duration and larger in amplitude than when subjects were instructed to pucker. We also determined that lip movement for puckering expressions was more asymmetric than lip movement in blowing. Differences in characteristics of lip movement were noted using facial movement analysis and were associated with the context of the movement. The impact of the instructions given for voluntary movement on the characteristics of facial movement might have important implications for assessing the capabilities and deficits of movement control in individuals with facial movement disorders. If results generalize to the clinical context, assessment of generally focused voluntary facial expressions might inadequately demonstrate the full range of facial movement capability of an individual patient.

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Jeffrey Martin

particular facial expressions as fixed prototypical expressions of emotion ( Durán & Fernández-Dols, 2018 ). Although emotions and facial expressions are correlated, emotions are also expressed through words and other bodily gestures ( Aviezer et al., 2012 ; Durán & Fernández-Dols, 2018 ; Keltner et

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Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico, and Ellen Armstrong

sport is lacking. A hypothetical example might best illustrate how understanding culture could be of value. For instance, it would be important that a coach from an individualist culture (e.g., Canada) understand that one of her athlete’s apparent lack of happiness (based on facial expressions) upon

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Andrew J. Manley, Iain Greenlees, Jan Graydon, Richard Thelwell, William C.D. Filby, and Matthew J. Smith

The study aimed to identify the sources of information that athletes perceive as influential during their initial evaluation of coaching ability. University athletes (N = 538) were asked to indicate the influence of 31 informational cues (e.g., gender, body language or gestures, reputation) on the initial impression formed of a coach. Following exploratory factor analysis, a 3-factor model (i.e., static cues, dynamic cues, and third-party reports) was extracted. Mean scores revealed that although static cues (e.g., gender, race or ethnicity) were rated as relatively unimportant during impression formation, dynamic cues (e.g., facial expressions, body language or gestures) and third-party reports (e.g., coaching qualifications, reputation) were viewed by athletes as influential factors in the formation of expectancies about coaches. Such findings have implications for the occurrence of expectancy effects in coach-athlete relationships and the way in which coaches seek to present themselves.

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Margaret Carlisle Duncan

This paper develops a theoretical framework for understanding how and what sports photographs mean. In particular, it identifies two categories of photographic features as conveyors of meanings. The first category is the content or discourse within the photograph, which includes physical appearances, poses and body positions, facial expressions, emotional displays, and camera angles. The second category is the context, which contributes to the discursive text of the photograph. The context includes the visual space in which the photograph appears, its caption, the surrounding written text, and the title and the substantive nature of the article in which the photograph appears. Using 1984 and 1988 Olympic Games photographs appearing in popular North American magazines, I show how these various features of photographs may enable patriarchal readings that emphasize sexual difference.

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Cheryl A. Howe, Kimberly A. Clevenger, Danielle McElhiney, Camille Mihalic, and Moira A. Ragan

’s real-time perception of enjoyment of common children’s games in the field, but few have been validated for this purpose. 13 , 14 However, both the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and the Preferences for Activities of Children use 3 to 5 facial expressions to answer a long series

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Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse, and Sebastian Ludyga

transferred via facial expressions appears to occur via a direct and preattentive route via the amygdala ( Mendez-Bertolo et al., 2016 ). In this context, while Bernstein and McNally ( 2017a , 2017b ) were able to show that a single bout of moderate aerobic exercise helped to overcome negative feelings

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Takashi Shimazaki, Hiroaki Taniguchi, and Masao Kikkawa

& Gould, 2011 ). The NC was initially defined as communication without words ( Mehrabian, 1968 ). It included expressive body movement, such as physical appearance, posture, gesture, body position, touching, and facial expression ( Weinberg & Gould, 2011 ). However, NC is a complex mechanism that reflects

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Stephanie Mueller, Montse C. Ruiz, and Stiliani Ani Chroni

perceiving the player’s states. Paying attention to bodily cues, meant looking closely at their players’ body-posture (e.g., tensed posture, shoulder position) and facial expression (e.g., eyes rolling, smiling). The motor-behavioural cues encompassed elements like throwing the racket, slapping one’s leg

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Wei-Ting Hsu and Min Pan

easily understood. After the examinations, several items were modified. For example, I was assigned to guide other classmates was revised to My teacher invited me to guide other classmates , and My teacher showed a satisfied facial expression was revised to My teacher showed me a satisfied facial