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Saurabh Sharma and M. Ejaz Hussain

SPADI 15 ( Appendix ). Therefore, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties which comprise reliability (internal consistency, test-retest, and composite), validity (convergent and structural), minimal detectable change (MDC 95 ), and partial confirmatory factor analysis

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Maureen R. Weiss, Brenda Jo Bredemeier and Richard M. Shewchuk

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation for use in the sport domain. Third- through sixth-grade boys and girls (N = 155) attending a children's summer sports camp were administered Harter's (1981b) measure of motivational orientation with items reworded to accommodate the sport setting. The data were then subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis for the purpose of testing the fit of the sport motivation data to the original 5-factor structural model identified by Harter for motivation in the cognitive domain. While the goodness-of-fit statistics suggested some resemblance, a number of other diagnostic indicators obtained from the analysis revealed that extensive modifications would be necessary before the Harter model could be considered an adequate representation of the underlying covariance structure of the sport motivation data. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in six interpretable factors that were somewhat different from Harter's original model in terms of hern loadings and factor structure. Moreover, the developmental trends in motivation for third- through sixth-grade children slightly deviated from those reported by Harter. Theoretical, practical, and methodological implications of this study are discussed.

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David Markland, Mark Emberton and Rachel Tallon

The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.

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Fuzhong Li and Peter Harmer

This study was designed to assess the factorial construct validity of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) within a hypothesis-testing framework. Data were collected from 173 male and 148 female intercollegiate athletes. Based on Carron et al.’s (1985) conceptual model of group cohesion, the study examined (a) the extent to which the first-order four-factor model could be confirmed with an intercollegiate athlete sample and (b) the degree to which higher order factors could account for the covariation among the four first-order factors. The a priori models of GEQ, including both the first- and second-order factor models, were tested through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). CFA results showed that the theoretically specified first- and second-order factor models fit significantly better than all alternative models. These results demonstrated that the GEQ possesses adequate factorial validity and reliability as a measure of the sport group cohesion construct for an intercollegiate athlete sample.

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Paula Marta Bruno, Fernando Duarte Pereira, Renato Fernandes and Gonçalo Vilhena de Mendonça

The responses to supramaximal exercise testing have been traditionally analyzed by means of standard parametric and nonparametric statistics. Unfortunately, these statistical approaches do not allow insight into the pattern of variation of a given parameter over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) allowed discriminating different patterns of power output (PO), during supramaximal exercise, in two groups of children engaged in competitive sports: swimmers and soccer players. Data derived from Wingate testing were used in this study. Analyses were performed on epochs (30 s) of upper and lower body PO obtained from twenty two healthy boys (11 swimmers and 11 soccer players) age 11–12 years old. DFA revealed two distinct patterns of PO during Wingate. Swimmers tended to attain their peak PO (upper and lower body) earlier than soccer players. As importantly, DFA showed that children with a given pattern of upper body PO tend to perform similarly during lower body exercise.

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Yi-nam Suen, Ester Cerin, Anthony Barnett, Wendy Y.J. Huang and Robin R. Mellecker


Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children’s physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers’ PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong.


Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined.


The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child’s PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89).


We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

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Katherine S. Hall, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Siobhan M. Phillips and Edward McAuley


The current study examined the psychometric properties and validity of the Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (MOEES) in a sample of older adults with physical and functional comorbidities.


Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the hypothesized 3-factor model in 108 older adults (M age 85 yr) residing in continuing-care retirement communities.


Analyses supported the 3-factor structure of the MOEES reflecting physical, social, and self-evaluative outcome expectations, with a 12-item model providing the best fit. Theorized bivariate associations between outcome expectations and physical activity, self-efficacy, and functional performance were all supported.


The 12-item version of the MOEES appears to be a reliable and valid measure of outcome expectations for exercise in this sample of older adults with physical and functional comorbidities. Further examination of the factor structure and the longitudinal properties of this measure in older adults is warranted.

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Alex C. Garn

Multidimensional measurement is a common theme in motivation research because many constructs are conceptualized as having an overarching general factor (e.g., situational interest) and specific dimensions (e.g., attention demand, challenge, exploration intention, instant enjoyment, novelty). This review addresses current issues associated with the multidimensional measurement of situational interest in elementary physical education (PE) and illustrates the application and benefits of bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). I perform secondary analysis on a large, previously published data set used to provide validation support for the Situational Interest Scale for Elementary PE. Findings clearly demonstrate the advantages of capturing the multidimensional nature of situational interest using bifactor ESEM. Specifically, a more accurate measurement model of situational interest is reproduced using bifactor ESEM compared with other techniques such as first-order and second-order confirmatory factor analysis. There is empirical support for an overall general factor of situational interest when using the Situational Interest Scale for Elementary PE, however, examining the five dimensions of situational interest as unique factors after accounting for the general factor does not appear warranted.

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Masato Kawabata and Rachel Evans

The present study examined the extent to which scores on the Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) could differentiate individuals who experienced flow characteristics in physical activity from those who did not. A total of 1,048 participants completed the Japanese version of the FSS-2. Latent class factor analysis (LCFA), which combines the strengths of both latent class analysis and factor analysis, was conducted on the FSS-2 responses. Four classes were identified through a series of LCFAs and the patterns of the item-average scores for the nine flow attributes were found parallel among these classes. The top two classes (15.1% and 38.9% of the whole sample) were considered the groups who experienced flow characteristics during their physical activities. These results indicated that individuals who experienced flow attributes in physical activity could be differentiated from those who did not based on their FSS-2 scores. Criteria for classifying individuals into the two groups were proposed.

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Christopher J. Hasson and Kevin S. Heffernan