This article describes the development and validation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2), a multidimensional measure of cognitive and somatic trait anxiety in sport performance settings. Scale development was stimulated by findings that the 3-factor structure of the original Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schutz, 1990) could not be reproduced in child samples and that several items on the scale produced conflicting factor loadings in adult samples. Alternative items having readability levels of grade 4 or below were therefore written to create a new version suitable for both children and adults. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses replicated the original SAS factor structure at all age levels, yielding separate 5-item subscales for Somatic Anxiety, Worry, and Concentration Disruption in samples as young as 9 to 10 years of age. The SAS-2 has stronger factorial validity than the original scale did, and construct validity research indicates that scores relate to other psychological measures as expected. The scale reliably predicts precompetition state anxiety scores and proved sensitive to anxiety-reduction interventions directed at youth sport coaches and parents.
Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, Sean P. Cumming, and Joel R. Grossbard
David Markland, Mark Emberton, and Rachel Tallon
The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.
Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith
The role of peers has been neglected in research on youth psychosocial development in sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a measure of youth sport friendship quality for the purpose of facilitating such research. Dimensions and higher order themes found in Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom’s (1996) qualitative study of sport friendships among children and adolescents, as well as a core set of items from previous research (Parker & Asher, 1993), were used to develop and refine items for a sport friendship quality scale. Over the course of three studies, content, factorial, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability, were demonstrated for the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Future research is recommended to examine the role of children’s sport friendship quality on psychosocial development in the physical domain.
Cheryl B. Anderson and Karen J. Coleman
This article describes the adaptation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for Adolescents for use with children and evaluates its construct validity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults and adolescents, the AIQ-Child measures the general attribute of athletic, which encompasses exercise, sport, and physical activity and assesses 4 dimensions: appearance, competence, importance of activity, and encouragement from 3 sources (parents, friends, teachers/other adults).
The hypothesized 4-factor model was tested using structural equation modeling in 2 samples of 9- and 10-year-old children that were ethnically diverse (N = 432) and Hispanic (N = 504).
Confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 8.71 supported the 4-factor structure in a 40- or 38-item version in sample 1 (RMSEA = .039, .041) and sample 2 (RMSEA = .038, .038). As in the adult and adolescent models, there was also support for a higher-order model. The AIQ-Child factors were positively related to physical activity (r = .51 to .68) and fitness (r = .15 to .41) and negatively related to TV/computer use (r = –.28 to –.03) and adiposity (r = –.32 to .04).
Findings support the factorial and construct validity of the AIQ-Child and its use as a self-report instrument in younger children.
Rebecca L. Dubas, Elizabeth F. Teel, Melissa C. Kay, Eric D. Ryan, Meredith A. Petschauer, and Johna K. Register-Mihalik
, Ferrara MS , Peterson CL . Evidence for the factorial and construct validity of a self-report concussion symptoms scale . J Athl Train . 2003 ; 38 ( 2 ): 104 – 112 . PubMed ID: 12937520 12937520 16. McCrea M , Kelly JP , Randolph C , et al . Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC
Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit, and Morgan Anderson
.4085/1062-6050-52.1.15 10.4085/1062-6050-52.1.15 Piland , S.G. , Motl , R.W. , Ferrara , M.S. , & Peterson , C.L. ( 2003 ). Evidence for the factorial and construct validity of a self-report concussion symptoms scale . Journal of Athletic Training, 38 , 104 . PubMed ID: 12937520 Prins , M.L. , & Hovda , D
Stephanie L. Barrett and Trent A. Petrie
. ( 2002 ). Factorial and construct validity of the body parts satisfaction scale-revised: An examination of minority and nonminority women . Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26 ( 3 ), 213 – 221 . doi:10.1111/1471-6402.00060 10.1111/1471-6402.00060 Preacher , K.J. ( 2015 ). Advances in mediation
Justine Chatterton, Trent A. Petrie, Keke L. Schuler, and Camilo Ruggero
and construct validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale for Men . Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59 , 329 – 337 . PubMed doi:10.1037/a0026777 10.1037/a0026777 McNeill , L.S. , & Firman , J.L. ( 2014 ). Ideal body image: A male perspective on self . Australasian Marketing Journal, 22