abilities. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the fall-risk experience of masters athletes actively competing in sport. Methods A hermeneutic phenomenology approach proposed by van Manen ( 1990 ) was used to allow for the interpretation and exploration of the experiences of masters
Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald and Volker Nolte
Rebecca L. Vivrette, Laurence Z. Rubenstein, Jennifer L. Martin, Karen R. Josephson and B. Josea Kramer
To determine seniors’ beliefs about falls and design a fall-risk self-assessment and educational materials to promote early identification of evidence-based fall risks and encourage prevention behaviors.
Focus groups with community-dwelling seniors, conducted in two phases to identify perceptions about fall risks and risk reduction and to assess face validity of the fall-risk self-assessment and acceptability of educational materials.
Lay perception of fall risks was in general concordance with evidence-based research. Maintaining independence and positive tone were perceived as key motivators for fall prevention. Seniors intended to use information in the educational tool to stimulate discussions about falls with health care providers.
An evidence-based, educational fall-risk self-assessment acceptable to older adults can build on existing lay knowledge about fall risks and perception that falls are a relevant problem and can educate seniors about their specific risks and how to minimize them.
Katherine Brooke-Wavell and Victoria C. Cooling
Fall-risk factors were compared between older women who regularly participate in lawn bowls and controls. Participants were 74 healthy women age 60–75 yr. Postural stability, timed up-and-go score, isometric knee-extensor strength, reaction time, range of motion, and calcaneal broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) were assessed. Bowlers and controls were similar in regard to mean age, height, and weight. Regular bowlers had significantly lower timed up-and-go times, reaction times, and sway while standing on a compliant surface. They had significantly higher knee-extensor strength, range of motion at ankle and shoulder, and calcaneal BUA. Although targeted strength and balance training might be necessary in treatment of the physical frailty that can contribute to falls and fractures in older people, it is possible that long-term participation in activity such as lawn bowls could help prevent this frailty.
Cathy M. Arnold and Robert A. Faulkner
To evaluate the effect of aquatic exercise and education on fall risk factors in older adults with hip osteoarthritis (OA).
Seventy-nine adults, 65 years of age or older with hip OA and at least 1 fall risk factor, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: aquatics and education (AE; aquatic exercise twice a wk with once-a-wk group education), aquatics only (A; 2 wk aquatic exercise) and control (C; usual activity). Balance, falls efficacy, dual-task function, functional performance (chair stands), and walking performance were measured pre- and postintervention or control period.
There was a significant improvement in fall risk factors (full-factorial MANCOVA, baseline values as covariates; p = .038); AE improved in falls efficacy compared with C and in functional performance compared with A and C.
The combination of aquatic exercise and education was effective in improving fall risk factors in older adults with arthritis.
Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer
direction and ability to step quickly, which may be effective in reducing fall risks. The results suggest that adoption of active lifestyle could be an effective approach to contributing to healthy aging in older adults. A randomized controlled trial to investigate effects of a bicycling training program on
Christopher J. Nightingale, Sidney N. Mitchell and Stephen A. Butterfield
endorsed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( STEADI, 2015 ) as a clinically useful tool for evaluating gait, strength, and balance in determining fall risk in older patients. However, to date, limited research exists to determine the validity of the TUG test as a measurement of balance
Debra J. Rose
In recent years, a number of research investigations have been conducted in an effort to determine whether declining balance and mobility among older adults can be reversed or at least slowed. Unfortunately, the results of a number of these studies have not yielded positive outcomes. Three reasons are forwarded to account for these unsuccessful outcomes: the lack of a contemporary theory-based approach to the problem, the failure to use multiple and diverse measures of balance and mobility, and the failure to design multidimensional interventions that target the actual source(s) of the balance or mobility-related impairments. A model fall-risk-reduction program designed to address each of the shortcomings associated with previous research findings is presented. The program is group based and suitable for implementation in community-based and residential care facilities.
Cody L. Sipe, Kevin D. Ramey, Phil P. Plisky and James D. Taylor
identified as one of the four main intrinsic risk factors for falls ( Yoshida, 2002 ). Balance capabilities generally decline with advancing age leading to an increase in fall risk for many older adults, especially those that are inactive or insufficiently active. Balance itself is a multifactorial construct
Lisa Ferguson-Stegall, Mandy Vang, Anthony S. Wolfe and Kathy M. Thomsen
Falls are a major public health concern among older adults, and most occur while walking, especially under dualtask conditions. Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics (JDE) is a music-based movement training program that emphasizes multitask coordinated movement. A previous 6-mo JDE study in older people demonstrated improved gait and balance; however, the effects of short-term JDE interventions on fall risk-related outcomes are largely unknown. We conducted a preliminary investigation on whether a 9-week JDE intervention improved gait and stability in a community-dwelling older cohort, hypothesizing that improvements would occur in all outcome measures.
Nine participants (78.9 ± 12.3 y) completed the supervised JDE intervention (once/week for 60 min). Gait speed was determined by the 6-m timed walk test (6MTW); dual-task gait speed was determined by another 6MTW while counting backward from 50 aloud; and coordinated stability was assessed using a Swaymeter-like device.
Gait speed (0.92 ± 0.11 vs 1.04 ± 0.12 m/sec, P = .04) and dual-task gait speed (0.77 ± 0.09 vs 0.92 ± 0.11 m/sec, P = .0005) significantly improved.
This novel intervention is an effective short-term physical activity option for those that plan physical activity or fall-risk reduction programs for the older people.
Cathy Arnold, Joel Lanovaz, Alison Oates, Bruce Craven and Scotty Butcher
This study compared sit to stand (STS) performance between older adults in a nine-week training program focusing on core stability exercises to enhance balance and postural control (EB) versus standard balance (SB) exercises. Repetitions in 30 s (STSreps) and kinematic performance (vertical and horizontal momentum, and margin of stability) were measured pre and postintervention in 23 older adults with at least one fall risk factor. Although both groups combined improved STSreps (P = .001) and vertical momentum (.008), a significant between-group difference was observed for completers only (MANCOVA of posttest group differences, with pretest scores as covariates; P = .04). EB demonstrated a greater but nonsignificant improvement in vertical momentum (P = .095). In conclusion, core stability training added to SB did not result in STS reps improvement. Compliance may modify these results and future larger sample studies should evaluate the impact of core stability training on STS biomechanics.