specific in relation to real-life fall risk during ambulation, there are some advantages of treadmill-based training paradigms. The treadmill is relatively portable in comparison to the complex laboratory setting of an overground walkway and can be easily translated into rehabilitation clinics. Furthermore
Anna Lee, Tanvi Bhatt, Xuan Liu, Yiru Wang, Shuaijie Wang, and Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai
Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald, and Volker Nolte
abilities. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the fall-risk experience of masters athletes actively competing in sport. Methods A hermeneutic phenomenology approach proposed by van Manen ( 1990 ) was used to allow for the interpretation and exploration of the experiences of masters
Rebecca L. Vivrette, Laurence Z. Rubenstein, Jennifer L. Martin, Karen R. Josephson, and B. Josea Kramer
To determine seniors’ beliefs about falls and design a fall-risk self-assessment and educational materials to promote early identification of evidence-based fall risks and encourage prevention behaviors.
Focus groups with community-dwelling seniors, conducted in two phases to identify perceptions about fall risks and risk reduction and to assess face validity of the fall-risk self-assessment and acceptability of educational materials.
Lay perception of fall risks was in general concordance with evidence-based research. Maintaining independence and positive tone were perceived as key motivators for fall prevention. Seniors intended to use information in the educational tool to stimulate discussions about falls with health care providers.
An evidence-based, educational fall-risk self-assessment acceptable to older adults can build on existing lay knowledge about fall risks and perception that falls are a relevant problem and can educate seniors about their specific risks and how to minimize them.
Christopher J. Nightingale, Sidney N. Mitchell, and Stephen A. Butterfield
endorsed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( STEADI, 2015 ) as a clinically useful tool for evaluating gait, strength, and balance in determining fall risk in older patients. However, to date, limited research exists to determine the validity of the TUG test as a measurement of balance
Cathy M. Arnold and Robert A. Faulkner
To evaluate the effect of aquatic exercise and education on fall risk factors in older adults with hip osteoarthritis (OA).
Seventy-nine adults, 65 years of age or older with hip OA and at least 1 fall risk factor, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: aquatics and education (AE; aquatic exercise twice a wk with once-a-wk group education), aquatics only (A; 2 wk aquatic exercise) and control (C; usual activity). Balance, falls efficacy, dual-task function, functional performance (chair stands), and walking performance were measured pre- and postintervention or control period.
There was a significant improvement in fall risk factors (full-factorial MANCOVA, baseline values as covariates; p = .038); AE improved in falls efficacy compared with C and in functional performance compared with A and C.
The combination of aquatic exercise and education was effective in improving fall risk factors in older adults with arthritis.
Katherine Brooke-Wavell and Victoria C. Cooling
Fall-risk factors were compared between older women who regularly participate in lawn bowls and controls. Participants were 74 healthy women age 60–75 yr. Postural stability, timed up-and-go score, isometric knee-extensor strength, reaction time, range of motion, and calcaneal broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) were assessed. Bowlers and controls were similar in regard to mean age, height, and weight. Regular bowlers had significantly lower timed up-and-go times, reaction times, and sway while standing on a compliant surface. They had significantly higher knee-extensor strength, range of motion at ankle and shoulder, and calcaneal BUA. Although targeted strength and balance training might be necessary in treatment of the physical frailty that can contribute to falls and fractures in older people, it is possible that long-term participation in activity such as lawn bowls could help prevent this frailty.
Cody L. Sipe, Kevin D. Ramey, Phil P. Plisky, and James D. Taylor
identified as one of the four main intrinsic risk factors for falls ( Yoshida, 2002 ). Balance capabilities generally decline with advancing age leading to an increase in fall risk for many older adults, especially those that are inactive or insufficiently active. Balance itself is a multifactorial construct
Debra J. Rose
In recent years, a number of research investigations have been conducted in an effort to determine whether declining balance and mobility among older adults can be reversed or at least slowed. Unfortunately, the results of a number of these studies have not yielded positive outcomes. Three reasons are forwarded to account for these unsuccessful outcomes: the lack of a contemporary theory-based approach to the problem, the failure to use multiple and diverse measures of balance and mobility, and the failure to design multidimensional interventions that target the actual source(s) of the balance or mobility-related impairments. A model fall-risk-reduction program designed to address each of the shortcomings associated with previous research findings is presented. The program is group based and suitable for implementation in community-based and residential care facilities.
Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer
direction and ability to step quickly, which may be effective in reducing fall risks. The results suggest that adoption of active lifestyle could be an effective approach to contributing to healthy aging in older adults. A randomized controlled trial to investigate effects of a bicycling training program on
Ehsan Sinaei, Debra J. Rose, Samira Javadpour, and Amin Kordi Yoosefinejad
system impairments that better predict falling risk in older adults ( Hernandez & Rose, 2008 ). The FAB scale demonstrates good predictive validity in identifying recurrent fallers from nonfallers among community-residing older adults with a sensitivity of 74.6% and a specificity of 52.6%. A one