Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 1,223 items for :

Clear All
Restricted access

Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jane Manson, Sally Fowler-Davis, Khalid Ali, Anna C. Lowe, Judy Stevenson, Shahab Parvinpour and Keith Davids

Aging is complex in nature and is accompanied by physical, sensory perceptual, and cognitive changes in the body that could affect balance and gait in predictable and unpredictable situations ( Melzer, Kurz, & Oddsson, 2010 ). A fall after losing balance and control of upright posture is a common

Restricted access

Anne H. Laybourne, Simon Biggs and Finbarr C. Martin

One third of adults over 65 yr old fall each year. Wide-ranging consequences include fracture, reduced activity, and death. Research synthesis suggests that falls-prevention programs can be effective in reducing falls by about 20%. Strength and balance training is the most efficacious component, and the assumed method of effect is an improvement in these performance domains. There is some evidence for this, but the authors have previously proposed an alternative method, activity restriction, leading to a reduction in subsequent falls through a reduction in exposure. The aim of this study was to examine physical activity in older fallers, applying a theory of adaptation, to ascertain predictors of habitual physical activity. Referrals to hospital- and community-based exercise programs were assessed for (a) habitual walking steps and (b) coping strategies, falls self-efficacy, social support, and balance mobility. There was no average group change in physical activity. There was high interindividual variability. Two coping strategies, loss-based selection and optimization, best explained the change in physical activity between baseline and follow-up. Notwithstanding some limitations, this work suggests further use of adaptation theory in falls research. A potential application is the creation of a profiling tool to enable clinicians to better match treatment to patient.

Open access

Yuko Kuramatsu, Yuji Yamamoto and Shin-Ichi Izumi

of the body. They may be unable to balance their body weight equally on each foot, and this causes a greater fall risk on the paretic side during whole-body movements ( Kajrolkar & Bhatt, 2016 ). Therefore, prioritizing mediolateral dynamic balance control might have different implications for

Restricted access

Bernard Auvinet, Gilles Berrut, Claude Touzard, Laurent Moutel, Nadine Collet, Denis Chaleil and Eric Barrey

The objective of this study was to measure gait abnormalities in elderly fallers with the Locometrix™ gait-analysis system. This accelerometric device provided the following gait variables: walking speed and stride frequency, length, symmetry, and regularity. The variables were analyzed over a 20-s period of stable walking on a flat track of 40 m. Participants were 20 elderly patients hospitalized for falls (mean age 80.8 ± 5.0 years) and 33 older adults living at home (mean age 77.2 ± 6.5 years). All gait variables were found to be significantly lower in the faller group (p < .05). The lower gait speed, stride length, and stride frequency were previously recognized as nonrelevant in predicting the risk of falling, whereas lower stride symmetry was related to an underlying pathology and lower stride regularity was correlated to the risk of falls. The Locometrix appears to be well suited to measure gait regularity in routine practice.

Restricted access

Oluwaseyi Osho, Oluwatoyosi Owoeye and Susan Armijo-Olivo

( Statistics Canada, 2015 ). One of the greatest health challenges facing this increasing population is falls ( Scott, Wagar, & Elliott, 2010 ). A fall is defined as a sudden, unintentional change in position, causing the individual to land at a lower level with or without injury ( Scott et al., 2010 ). The

Full access

Amanda L. Penko, Jacob E. Barkley, Anson B. Rosenfeldt and Jay L. Alberts

/or cognitive performance. 2 , 3 , 5 Postural instability and gait dysfunction associated with PD are described as shuffling, small steps, decreased arm swing, and stooped posture, which disturb mobility and postural stability, leading to an increased fall risk. 4 , 6 Greater than 50% of individuals with PD

Restricted access

Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

Falls are common in community-dwelling stroke survivors, 1 and poststroke patients are more often frequent fallers than older adults. 2 In addition, hip fractures resulting from a fall more often lead to immobility in stroke survivors. 3 Other consequences of falls are loss of independence and

Restricted access

Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer

, Benjuya, & Kaplanski, 2003 ) showed better fall-related traditional sway measurements compared with controls. Rissel, Passmore, Mason, and Merom ( 2013 ) found that a month of outdoor bicycling was associated with faster stepping times among adults aged 44–79 years. In addition, in a pre–post study design

Restricted access

Wuber J.S. Soares, Alexandre D. Lopes, Eduardo Nogueira, Victor Candido, Suzana A. de Moraes and Monica R. Perracini

). Fall-related costs are expected to increase substantially in coming years due to population aging, particularly the costs associated with hospitalization, long-term care, and fractures ( Heinrich, Rapp, Rissmann, Becker, & König, 2010 ). The physical activity (PA) level is an important indicator of

Restricted access

Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel and Mirjam Pijnappels

A significant health issue among older adults is falls. The World Health Organization ( 2008 ) estimated that 28–35% of people aged 65 years and older fall each year, of which 20–30% results in an injury. Falls have accounted for more than 50% of injury-related hospitalizations in people aged 65