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Steven van Andel, Michael H. Cole and Gert-Jan Pepping

leading onto the curb. This finding underlines the importance of a functional approach to assessing physical function and falls risk in older populations and should be used to design novel fall prevention interventions. Acknowledgments We thank our team of research assistants for their efforts in data

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Taís L. Almeida, Neil B. Alexander, Linda V. Nyquist, Marcos L. Montagnini, Angela C.S. Santos, Giselle H.P. Rodrigues, Carlos E. Negrão, Ivani C. Trombetta and Mauricio Wajngarten

Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD = 4.55) were randomized to 4 mo of multimodal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n = 45), minimally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42), or to nonexercise controls (C, n = 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and 4 mo and compared with the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in timed up-and-go, F(2,73) = 5.82, p = .004, η2 p = .14, and increase in tandem-walk speed, F(2,73) = 7.71, p < .001 η2 p = .17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community-dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility.

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Claudia Meyer, Sophie Hill, Keith D. Hill and Briony Dow

, 2009 ). Tools and resources may assist service providers to better tailor services to the preferences of people with dementia and their caregivers. Decisions related to falls prevention are particularly complex, given the multidimensional nature of falls risk factors. Evidence-based strategies are

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Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel and Mirjam Pijnappels

balance, fatigue, and reduce fear of falling, and possibly, due to cycling’s bilateral and cyclical nature, it may also result in improved gait for people with locomotor dysfunction. Up until now, these possible benefits of bicycling in reducing the falls risk factors in older adults have not yet been

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Emma Renehan, Claudia Meyer, Rohan A. Elliott, Frances Batchelor, Catherine Said, Terry Haines and Dianne Goeman

( Gillespie et al., 2012 ; Sherrington, Tiedemann, Fairhall, Close, & Lord, 2011 ). The Australian best practice guidelines recommend medication review and modification of medication regime as part of multifactorial approaches to falls prevention, particularly related to withdrawal of falls risk

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Lauren C. Benson, Stephen C. Cobb, Allison S. Hyngstrom, Kevin G. Keenan, Jake Luo and Kristian M. O’Connor

Low foot clearance and high variability may be related to falls risk. Foot clearance is often defined as the local minimum in toe height during swing; however, not all strides have this local minimum. The primary purpose of this study was to identify a nondiscrete measure of foot clearance during all strides, and compare discrete and nondiscrete measures in ability to rank individuals on foot clearance and variability. Thirty-five participants (young adults [n = 10], older fallers [n = 10], older nonfallers [n = 10], and stroke survivors [n = 5]) walked overground while lower extremity 3D kinematics were recorded. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the toe height waveform yielded representation of toe height when it was closest to the ground. Spearman’s rank order correlation assessed the association of foot clearance and variability between PCA and discrete variables, including the local minimum. PCA had significant (P < .05) moderate or strong associations with discrete measures of foot clearance and variability. An approximation of the discrete local minimum had a weak association with PCA and other discrete measures of foot clearance. A PCA approach to quantifying foot clearance can be used to identify the behavioral components of toe height when it is closest to the ground, even for strides without a local minimum.

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Tim Henwood, Sharon Hetherington, Madeleine Purss, Kevin Rouse, Julie Morrow and Michele Smith

disability associated with loss of independence and transition to residential aged care is closely linked to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity is an established precursor to decreases in muscle mass, muscle strength, mobility, physical performance, and increasing falls risk ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010

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Erin Smith, Tara Cusack, Caitriona Cunningham and Catherine Blake

implications for the assessment of functional decline and possibly falls risk, as there is strong evidence to suggest that the gait of older adults is affected more by concurrent cognitive tasks than that of young adults ( Al-Yahya et al., 2011 ; Hollman, Kovash, Kubik, & Linbo, 2007 ; Laessoe, Hoeck

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Mohammed M. Althomali and Susan J. Leat

falls risk factor in a number of studies ( Black, Wood, & Lovie-Kitchin, 2011 ; Brandt, Dichgans, & Koenig, 1973 ; Ivers et al., 1998 ; Klein, Moss, Klein, Lee, & Cruickshanks, 2003 ; Patino et al., 2010 ). Stereoacuity/poor depth perception, which describe the ability to judge distances, have been

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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang

, X. , & Liu , L. ( 2005 ). Sleep habits and insomnia in a sample of elderly persons in China . Sleep, 28 , 1579 – 1587 . PubMed ID: 16408418 Lord , S.R. , Menz , H. B. , & Tiedemann , A. ( 2003 ). A physiological profile approach to falls risk assessment and prevention . Physical