systematic review by Ali and Willett ( 2015 ) found environmental factors, such as slippery pathways due to adverse weather conditions, as a risk factor for falls. The DRF mostly occurs in healthy active individuals who tend to move faster ( Kelsey, Browner, Seeley, Nevitt, & Cummings, 1992 ). A case
Sheena S. Philip, Joy C. Macdermid, Saranya Nair, Dave Walton, and Ruby Grewal
Fuzhong Li, Peter Harmer, Karin A. Mack, David Sleet, K. John Fisher, Melvin A. Kohn, Lisa M. Millet, Junheng Xu, Tingzhong Yang, Beth Sutton, and Yvaughn Tompkins
This study was designed to develop an evidence- and community-based falls prevention program—Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance.
A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach was used to develop a package of materials for program implementation and evaluation. The developmental work was conducted in 2 communities in the Pacific Northwest. Participants included a panel of experts, senior service program managers or activity coordinators, and older adults. Outcome measures involved program feasibility and satisfaction.
Through an iterative process, a program package was developed. The package contained an implementation plan and class training materials (ie, instructor’s manual, videotape, and user’s guidebook). Pilot testing of program materials showed that the content was appropriate for the targeted users (community-living older adults) and providers (local senior service organizations). A feasibility survey indicated interest and support from users and providers for program implementation. A 2-week pilot evaluation showed that the program implementation was feasible and evidenced good class attendance, high participant satisfaction, and interest in continuing Tai Chi.
The package of materials developed in this study provides a solid foundation for larger scale implementation and evaluation of the program in community settings.
Mon S. Bryant, Diana H. Rintala, Jyh-Gong Hou, and Elizabeth J. Protas
To investigate the relationships between falls, fear of falling, and activity limitations in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Cross-sectional study of individuals with mild to moderate PD (N = 83). Associations among demographic data, fall frequency, disease severity, motor impairment, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), Activities Balance Confidence Scale, Iowa Fatigue Scale, Comorbidity Index, and Physical Activity Scale for Elders were studied.
Frequent fallers had more ADL limitations than nonfallers (p < .001) and rare fallers (p = .004). Frequent fallers reported a lower percentage of ability to perform ADL than nonfallers (p = .003). Frequent fallers and rare fallers were less physically active than nonfallers (p = .015 and p = .040, respectively). Frequent fallers and rare fallers reported a higher level of fear of falling than nonfallers (p = .031 and p = .009, respectively).
Falls and fear of falling were associated with more ADL limitations and less physical activity after adjusting for physical impairments.
Den-Ching A. Lee, Lesley Day, Caroline F. Finch, Keith Hill, Lindy Clemson, Fiona McDermott, and Terry P. Haines
This paper examines whether involvement in an observational study may prompt participants to change their exercise behaviors. Data were collected from 394 older community dwellers in Victoria, Australia using a baseline survey, and 245 of these participated in a follow-up survey one year later. Survey domains were drawn from constructs of relevant health behavior models. Results showed that the proportion of respondents who were currently participating in exercises to prevent falls at follow-up was 12% higher than at baseline (Wilcoxon p value < .001). Twenty-nine percent reported they had changed their perceptions about falls and their risk of falls, with comments focused on threat appraisal. Forty-four percent reported having taken strategies to reduce their risk of falling, with comments based on implementation of different preventive strategies. Respondents who held favorable views toward exercises for the prevention of falls appear to change their behaviors that might address falls when participating in observational studies.
Christine M. Snow
Emma Renehan, Claudia Meyer, Rohan A. Elliott, Frances Batchelor, Catherine Said, Terry Haines, and Dianne Goeman
Falls are a serious problem in the community, with one-third of people over 65 years of age falling each year ( Lord, Ward, Williams, & Anstey, 1993 ). In Australia, falls are the leading cause of hospitalizations due to injury, accounting for 70% of admissions for people aged over 65 years and 87
Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald, and Volker Nolte
Canada, 2014 ). Falls occur throughout the life span, and nearly one in every three community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older will fall at least once each year ( Sherrington et al., 2017 ). In this study, a fall is defined as “an unexpected event in which the participants come to rest on the
Steven van Andel, Michael H. Cole, and Gert-Jan Pepping
It is estimated that about one in three older adults fall at least once each year ( Campbell, Reinken, Allan, & Martinez, 1981 ; Tinetti, Speechley, & Ginter, 1988 ; World Health Organization, 2007 ), making accidental falls a significant physical, psychological, and financial burden on society
Marina Arkkukangas, Susanna Tuvemo Johnson, Karin Hellström, Elisabeth Anens, Michail Tonkonogi, and Ulf Larsson
Approximately one third of community-dwelling older adults fall each year, and half of those will experience recurrent falls ( World Health Organization and U.S. National Institute of Aging, 2011 ). Interventions have shown that the risk of falls can be altered by lifestyle changes, such as