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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo and Hiroaki Masaki

source judgment (i.e., whether the item was seen in the size block or the animacy block). The dual-process model postulates two types of memory retrieval processes: familiarity and recollection. Familiarity refers to the feeling that an item or event has occurred in the past without any concurrent

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Adam M. Bruton, Stephen D. Mellalieu and David A. Shearer

The purpose of this multistudy investigation was to examine observation as an intervention for the manipulation of individual collective efficacy beliefs. Study 1 compared the effects of positive, neutral, and negative video footage of practice trials from an obstacle course task on collective efficacy beliefs in assigned groups. The content of the observation intervention (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative video footage) significantly influenced the direction of change in collective efficacy (p < .05). Study 2 assessed the influence of content familiarity (own team/sport vs. unfamiliar team/sport) on individual collective efficacy perceptions when observing positive footage of competitive basketball performance. Collective efficacy significantly increased for both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions postintervention, with the largest increase for the familiar condition (p < .05). The studies support the use of observation as an intervention to enhance individual perceptions of collective efficacy in group-based activities. The findings suggest that observations of any group displaying positive group characteristics are likely to increase collective efficacy beliefs; however, observation of one’s own team leads to the greatest increases.

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Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto and Hideki Yasuda

were presented with the 500-tone sequences based on a distinct Markov chain. After the exposure to the sequences, learning effects were evaluated using a familiarity test in which they were presented by a 40-tone series, and the participant reported whether each tone series sounded familiar. The 40

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Neng Wan, Ming Wen, Jessie X. Fan, O. Fahina Tavake-Pasi, Sara McCormick, Kirsten Elliott and Emily Nicolosi

, according to our previous mobile-health projects, many participants (especially women) mentioned the difficulty of carrying the phone in their pocket and suggested using belt clips. These survey results are summarized in Table  3 . Table 3 Familiarity With Smartphone Among Participants Indicator No. of

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Lawrence W. Judge, Kimberly J. Bodey, David Bellar, Christine Brooks and Terry Crawford

In recent years, large scale sport organizations and national governing bodies have produced coaching education programs to prepare coaches to teach and mentor athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine: a) track & field coaches’ familiarity with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, b) the alignment of United States Track & Field (USATF) Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, and c) the alignment of USATF Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with coaches’ perceived needs for subject matter training. A 39-item survey was administered during a USATF certification course to measure coaches’ familiarity and perceptions. The results showed the vast majority of coaches (75.2%) were not familiar with the National Standards. At the time of assessment, the Developmental, Level I, and Level II courses were partially aligned with 25 of 40 standards at the Level 1, Level 3, or Level 5 accreditation levels. The courses were not aligned with 15 of 40 standards at any accreditation level. The majority of deficiencies existed in Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention, Domain 7: Organization and Administration, and Domain 8: Evaluation. While the USATF coaching education curriculum is partially aligned with many, but not all, of the national standards, the curriculum appears to contain subject matter training that coaches perceived as needed. Curricular revisions, including future directions of the USATF coaching education program, such as new courses and innovative use of technology, are presented.

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Frank E. Seagraves and Michael Horvat

The purpose of this investigation was to compare isometric test procedures (make vs. break tests by muscle groups) with elementary school girls, ages 9–11, using hand-held dynamometry. Fifty subjects in Grades 3 and 4 performed three trials on four muscle groups using each testing procedure following a preliminary session to allow familiarity with the instrumentation, test procedures, and test positions. Retest measurements were taken in 5–7 days with the order of the test procedures counterbalanced. Four 2 × 2 (Side × Test Condition) AM0VAs, with repeated measures on each-factor, were used to analyze the data. Significant Side × Test Condition interaction effects were evident for knee extension, elbow flexion, and shoulder abduction. Except for the knee extension, the break test produced higher values than the make test in all muscle groups, which is in agreement with previous investigations.

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Jeffrey O. Segrave

This paper explores the use of the sports metaphor in the language of sexual relations. Data were collected from a questionnaire administered to a select sample of 127 undergraduate students. The results indicated widespread familiarity and use of this type of language, especially among males. Far from being innocuous, the use of the sports metaphor in this intimate area of life operates as a subtle, yet powerful component of a larger cultural discourse that contributes to the social construction of male hegemony in society. In particular, “sportspeak” in the language of sexual relations functions as a mechanism for transforming a human relations issue into a technical problem, for objectifying women, and for constructing notions of masculine hegemony and hegemonic masculinity.

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Patrick H.F. Baillie and Steven J. Danish

Transition out of a career in sports has been suggested as being a difficult and disruptive process for many athletes. An early and enduring identification, familiarity, and preference for the role of athlete may cause its loss to be a significant stressor for the elite, Olympic, or professional athlete. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various aspects of the career transition process in sports, beginning with early identification with the role of athlete and continuing through retirement from active participation in competitive sports. Athletes are often poorly prepared for the off-time event of leaving sports, and traditional theories of retirement may not be suitable. People associated with athletes (coaches, peers, management, family members, and sport psychologists) and athletes themselves need to be aware of the potential for difficulty during their career transition.

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B. David Tyler, Steve C. Morse and Ryan K. Cook

Small-scale sporting events play an important role in bringing tourists to destinations. In this case, students take the role of the fictional national events director for EVP Beach Volleyball as he analyzes hotel data from three destinations to determine which locale would most benefit from EVP’s participants and fans. The primary goal is for students to learn to conduct basic analysis on a large, real dataset using Microsoft Excel. A second goal is to introduce students to the key performance indicators of the hotel industry: Occupancy Rate, Average Daily Rate (ADR), and Revenue Per Available Room (RevPAR). These metrics are central to hoteliers’ daily operations and familiarity with them will help students speak that language when interacting with people in the field. Thirdly, the case introduces key concepts surrounding the economic impact of sport events, particularly relating to the value of visitor spending.

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Paul G. Schempp, Dean Manross, Steven K.S. Tan and Matthew D. Fincher

The purpose of the study was to ascertain the influence of subject matter expertise on teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Data were collected through multiple, extended interviews with 10 teachers with expertise in at least 1 subject area in physical education. Each teacher was interviewed 4 times for approximately 1 hour, focusing on the teacher’s familiarity with 2 content areas (1 expert and 1 nonexpert) and their experiences teaching the subjects. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative technique. The findings were presented with reference to Grossman’s (1990) definition of pedagogical content knowledge. Subject experts identified their largest pedagogical problem as student motivation, while nonexperts believed finding appropriate activities was their greatest challenge. Subject experts were more comfortable and enthusiastic about pedagogical duties and could accommodate a greater range of abilities. The experts and nonexperts revealed no differences in curricular selection, perceptions of students’ understanding of the subject, or evaluation criteria.