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Christopher C. Draheim, Bruce L. Bakke, Robert C. Serfass, Paul V. Snyder, and Ava J. Walker

The purpose of the project was to evaluate an underwater weighing (UWW) and residual lung volume (RV) familiarization program developed for adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). UWW was conducted on 15 adults (10 men, 5 women) with PWS following a UWW familiarization program. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no difference in percent body fat derived from UWW over the four sessions, F(3, 27) = 0.80, p = .505, with an intraclass reliability coefficient of R = .93. There was, however, a significant difference in RV, F(3, 27) = 5.25, p = .006, with an intraclass reliability coefficient of R = .65. The familiarization program is recommended for implementation prior to measuring percent body fat via UWW. However, predicting the RV may be an easier and more consistent alternative to measuring the RV in adults with PWS.

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Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Aaron J. Coutts, and Yann Le Meur

Purpose:

To describe the effect of the initial perceptual experience from heat familiarization on the pacing profile during a freepaced endurance time trial (TT) compared with temperate conditions.

Methods:

Two groups of well-trained triathletes performed two 20-km TTs in either hot (35°C and 50% relative humidity [RH], n = 12) or temperate (21°C and 50% RH, n = 22) conditions, after standardization of training for each group before both trials. To ensure no physiological acclimation differences between conditions, the TTs for both groups were separated by 11 ± 4 d.

Results:

Performance improvement in the heat (11 ± 24 W) from the 1st to 2nd trial appeared comparable to that in temperate conditions (8 ± 14 W, P = .67). However, the specific alteration in pacing profile in the heat was markedly different than temperate conditions, with a change from “positive” to an “even” pacing strategy.

Conclusions:

Altered perceptions of heat during heat familiarization, rather than physiological acclimatization per se, may mediate initial changes in pacing and TT performance in the heat. These results highlight the need for athletes without time for sufficient heat acclimatization to familiarize themselves with hot conditions to reduce the uncertainty from behavior-based outcomes that may impede performance.

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Ivan Vrbik, Goran Sporiš, Lovro Štefan, Dejan Madić, Nebojša Trajković, Irena Valantine, and Zoran Milanović

Purpose:

The number of familiarization sessions in fitness assessments seems to be critical and inconsistent. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to determine the number of familiarization attempts that stabilize the results in particular physical fitness tests. The secondary aim was to establish the test reliability through familiarization sessions.

Methods:

Thirty-nine primary school children participated in this research (age: 10.8 years, body mass: 40.6 ± 8.9 kg, and body height: 145.3 ± 7.2 cm). During six sessions, with one session every third day, participants performed the following tests to assess explosive strength (vertical jump and standing long jump), coordination (polygon backward and polygon with turn) and flexibility (toe touch).

Results:

The results of repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant increases (p < .05) in the polygon backward and polygon with turn performances from the first to third familiarization session. The standard error of measurement decreased as sessions progressed, indicating little within subject variation between the coordination test results following a familiarization period. Statistically significant differences were identified in the vertical jump test from the fourth test session compared with the first session. On the other hand, statistically significant differences for the standing long jump test were only found in the final session compared with the initial session. In the toe touch test, there were no significant increases from the first to the final familiarization session. All tests showed high a reliability coefficients, ranging from 0.979 to 0.991.

Conclusion:

Polygon backward and polygon with turn performance may be a practical, reliable method to assess coordination in primary school-aged children. However, completion of at least 3 practice sessions is suggested for participants to obtain a stable score. In addition, both jump tests are feasible for assessing skill-related fitness in young children, although the scientific reliability of the two tests should be questioned and the tests should be tailored to fit the age group of the children.

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Isabel S. Moore and Sharon J. Dixon

Interest in barefoot running and research on barefoot running are growing. However a methodological issue surrounding investigations is how familiar the participants are with running barefoot. The aim of the study was to assess the amount of time required for habitually shod runners to become familiar with barefoot treadmill running. Twelve female recreational runners, who were experienced treadmill users, ran barefoot on a treadmill for three bouts, each bout consisting of 10 minutes at a self-selected speed with 5 minute rest periods. Sagittal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, ankle, and foot during stance were recorded during the first and last minute of each 10-minute bout. Strong reliability (ICC > .8) was shown in most variables after 20 minutes of running. In addition, there was a general trend for the smallest standard error of mean to occur during the same period. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in any of the biomechanical variables after 20 minutes of running. Together, this suggests that familiarization was achieved between 11 and 20 minutes of running barefoot on a treadmill. Familiarization was characterized by less plantar flexion and greater knee flexion at touchdown. These results indicate that adequate familiarization should be given in future studies before gait assessment of barefoot treadmill running.

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Iva Obrusnikova, Albert R. Cavalier, Richard R. Suminski, Ashleigh E. Blair, Cora J. Firkin, and Ashley M. Steinbrecher

). While those findings are encouraging, the meta-analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity in the effects of existing RT interventions. The missing or poorly described theoretical frameworks that guided the RT interventions, compromised methodological quality, and poorly described familiarization

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Lilian F. Wallerstein, Renato Barroso, Valmor Tricoli, Marco T. Mello, and Carlos Ugrinowitsch

Ramp isometric contractions determine peak torque (PT) and neuromuscular activation (NA), and ballistic contractions can be used to evaluate rate of torque development (RTD) and electrical mechanical delay (EMD). The purposes of this study were to assess the number of sessions required to stabilize ramp and ballistic PT and to compare PT and NA between contractions in older adults. Thirty-five older men and women (age 63.7 ± 3.7 yr, body mass 64.3 ± 10.7 kg, height 159.2 ± 6.6 cm) performed 4 sessions of unilateral ramp and ballistic isometric knee extension, 48 hr apart. PT significantly increased (main time effect p < .05) from the first to the third session, with no further improvements thereafter. There was a trend toward higher PT in ballistic than in ramp contractions. No difference between contraction types on EMG values was observed. Therefore, the authors suggest that 3 familiarization sessions be performed to correctly assess PT. In addition, PT, NA, RTD, and EMD can be assessed with ballistic contraction in older adults.

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Rafael Sabido, Jose Luis Hernández-Davó, and Gabriel T. Pereyra-Gerber

is a lack of literature that makes it difficult to prescribe and control training programs using flywheel devices. First, it is important to know how variables such as power output production and eccentric overload are affected by participant variability and the familiarization process with this kind

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Lei Zhou, Marie-Anne Gougeon, and Julie Nantel

of this study was to determine the impact of walking with poles on gait spatial–temporal characteristics and power profiles at the ankle, knee, and hip in individuals with PD after a 6-week familiarization training program. Due to the asymmetrical progression of the motor deficits in PD, we also

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Naroa Etxebarria, Megan L. Ross, Brad Clark, and Louise M. Burke

University of Canberra and according to the Helsinki Declaration. All participants provided their written informed consent before participating. Methodology Pretrial Standardization A standardized pretrial meal was provided to participants before all trials (familiarization and intervention) to minimize

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young, and Brendan J. O’Brien

challenge for controlling pitch type, it is probably best to provide an adequate familiarization period before testing, where fast bowlers have sufficient time to adapt to the pitch surface and condition and learning effects can be controlled. Ball Characteristics The traditional cricket ball is composed of