showing that it may sometimes take a different form, with wide-ranging implications for our understanding of sport fan behavior moving forward. Theoretical Framework Team Identification Identity in sport fandom has been conceptualized primarily as either a role-based identity (rooted in identity theory
Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink
Brian M. Mills, Scott Tainsky, B. Christine Green and Becca Leopkey
to apply the advances in these methods to the sport management context. Specifically, these methods provide a powerful tool in the development of a thorough understanding of fan behavior, measuring differences in actions based on various circumstances rather than making strong assumptions about the
Seong-Hee Park, Daniel Mahony and Yu Kyoum Kim
Most literature on sport fan behaviors has focused on highly identified or loyal sport fans. While the literature has found that factors influencing current sport fans and their behaviors are related to, and based on, various psychological, social, and cultural factors, only a limited number of studies have investigated what factors initially attract individuals to consume sport. Curiosity has been found to be one of the crucial motivators that initially influence human exploratory behaviors in many domains. Using theories of curiosity, the present review aims to shed light on the role of curiosity in explaining various sport fan behaviors.
Matthew Katz, Bob Heere and E. Nicole Melton
of this study indicate that relationships and ego networks influence fan behaviors in each setting. Looking ahead, future researchers could better consider tie strength and multiplexity. We treated all ego-alter ties as binary in this study, yet future research may yield new insights by better
Craig Hyatt, Shannon Kerwin, Larena Hoeber and Katherine Sveinson
. In the second theme, parents spoke of their child’s influence on changing their fan behaviors (such as becoming calmer while spectating) or attitudes to elements of the sport. Both themes will now be discussed through a more detailed examination of examples of each. Developing New or Additional
Brendan Dwyer, Gregory P. Greenhalgh and Carrie W. LeCrom
Brand evangelism, an advanced form of marketing where consumers voluntarily advocate on behalf of the brand, can bring numerous benefits to a firm. Pro-brand behaviors such as word-of-mouth promotion, recruitment of consumers, and disparagement of rivals are just a few of the many actions associated with brand evangelism. With highly impassioned and provocative fans, an opportunity exists to explore brand evangelism within the spectator sport context. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure sport team (brand) evangelism. Guided by Fournier’s (1998) brand extension of relationship theory and following Churchill’s (1979) eight-step method for developing marketing measures, two focus groups of fans were interviewed and an additional 450 sport fans were surveyed through two distinct data collections in an attempt to identify sport team evangelistic behaviors, and test a measure of such behaviors. The assessment of the instrument included two forms of reliability analysis and three modes of validity analysis as the scale was parsimoniously reduced from 88 initial behaviors to four factors and 14 items.
Passion drives sport consumption, but we lack valid relevant measures of passion. The results of two studies provide evidence of a reliable and valid multiple-item passion scale that may be used in the study of sports-related consumption behavior. In Study 1 a multi-item fan passion scale was compared with established social identification fan classification scales to provide evidence of discriminant and predictive validity. Because the passion scale outperformed other relevant fan classification measures, in Study 2 the fan passion scale was compared with current single-item measurement practices employed by National Football League and Major League Baseball teams, and some academics, to classify fans. Findings confirmed the veracity of the multi-item passion measure over categorical and interval fan avidity measures used by leagues and syndicated research providers. Taken together, the studies validate an accurate measure of fan passion that may be used to segment and predict fan behaviors, including consumption of traditional media (television, radio, news, and the team’s website) and consumption of the team’s official social media outlets.
Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Nicholas M. Watanabe
A paradox exists between the ways sport organizations evaluate their economic impact, compared with their environmental impact. Although the initial sustainability and corporate social responsibility efforts of sport organizations should be celebrated, it is appropriate to call for the next advancement concerning the assessment and measurement of environmental sustainability efforts in sport organizations. Specifically, there is a need for improved and increased monitoring and measurement of sustainable practices that include negative environmental externalities. To usher this advancement, the authors first reviewed the extant research and current industry practice involving environmental impact reporting in sport. Second, the authors proposed a conceptual framework that expands the scope of environmental assessment to be more comprehensive. As such, this expanded, yet more accurate, assessment of environmental impact can identify specific aspects of the event and the inputs and outputs of the before and after event phases that can be curtailed or modified to reduce environmental impacts of sport events.
Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu
& Bernache-Assollant, 2011 ; Tajfel & Turner, 1986 ). Social identity, specifically in-group and out-group bias, is prevalent in sport-fan behavior ( Smith & Smith, 2012 ). Team identification provides fans with a feeling of solidarity and attachment, sharing in the glory of wins and agony of losses
Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Brad D. Carlson
explaining fan behavior in the realm of sport management. For example, according to Carlson and Donavan ( 2013 ), both prestige (e.g., reputation and symbol) and distinctiveness (e.g., uniqueness and unlikeness) can influence athlete identification and effectively predict fans’ emotional connections with