In the sport management literature, limited attention has been devoted to the conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement. Two quantitative studies were completed to validate the proposed fan-engagement scale composed of three defining elements (management cooperation, prosocial behavior, and performance tolerance). The results from Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the threefactor model of fan engagement. In Study 2, we assess nomological validity by examining the antecedents and consequences of fan engagement and found that team identification and basking in reflected glory played a particularly important role in increasing the three dimensions of fan engagement. Furthermore, the results indicate that performance tolerance has a positive effect on purchase intention. These findings highlight the importance of the sequential relationships between team identification, performance tolerance, and purchase intention.
Masayuki Yoshida, Brian Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, and Rui Biscaia
Sarah Wymer, Michael L. Naraine, Ashleigh-Jane Thompson, and Andy J. Martin
throwing back beers and dancing alongside the athletes; they could also send their congratulations to the team in real-time. This content was often mentioned among the digital team as an example of optimal fan engagement, and the team worked hard to duplicate this level of reach and engagement across their
Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas, and Christos Anagnostopoulos
) classifications of brand associations. The trend of increased interaction observed in the sample highlights the relevance of analyzing a brand’s value from the perspective of the consumer rather than from that of the brand owner’s and confirms the influence of brand attributes on fan engagement over time. In
Megan C. Piché and Michael L. Naraine
’s sport, which provides this study an opportunity to learn more about strategic communication related to SM. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the use of the SM to measure fan engagement with the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA). Specifically, this study used a quantitative
Michael L. Naraine and Jordan T. Bakhsh
severely limited relative to other industries ( Abeza et al., 2019 ). Thus, by uncovering when and where engagement is highest, teams are able to refocus their social strategies and deploy content to maximize fan engagement. Furthermore, this study seeks to extend Achen’s ( 2017 ) model not only by testing
Yiran Su, Bradley J. Baker, Jason P. Doyle, and Meimei Yan
-related content due to constraints on social gatherings has posed challenges for athletes to maintain fan relationships. Against this background, TikTok has gained prominence as the latest digital apparatus for fan engagement. Athlete-generated TikTok videos have been widely reported on by news outlets. Examples
Joseph Ray, Jimmy Smith, and Brian Fowler
Social media has become a powerful source of sports information. The uncertainty of outcomes of a sporting event is a contributing factor to fan satisfaction, which in turn affects fans’ social-media habits. If teams can determine specific factors that affect these social-media habits, marketing conclusions can be drawn. The current research followed the Twitter accounts of 4 National Hockey League (NHL) teams throughout the 2015 NHL postseason to observe changes in fan engagement. The results displayed increasing growth during each subsequent round of the Stanley Cup playoffs, which indicates an advantageous time to gain fans and develop brand loyalty. The current research showed that retweets and favorites earned on team tweets were shown to have the greatest correlation to followers gained. The growth demonstrated during the postseason provides sports organizations the opportunity to cultivate a strong and loyal following for their teams through strategic marketing initiatives.
Alyssa Scalera and Michael L. Naraine
find suitable avenues to both sustain and improve upon existing relationships with their customers ( Gronroos, 2017 ). An avenue that was accordingly mentioned by Gronroos for interacting with customers was inevitably social media. Hence, fan engagement through social media is important insofar as it
This case study investigated athletes’ use of a specific social-media platform—Twitter. Social media are a rising force in marketing and have been fully embraced by the sport industry, with teams, leagues, coaches, athletes, and managers establishing presences. Primarily these presences have been focused on Twitter, a microblogging site that allows users to post their personal thoughts in 140 characters or less. Athletes, in particular, have engaged in tweeting at a fast pace, which raises the question, What are they saying? This case study investigated the tweets of athletes over a 7-d period in an attempt to answer that question. The findings indicate that athletes are talking predominantly about their personal lives and responding to fans’ queries through Twitter. The results indicate that Twitter is a powerful tool for increasing fan–athlete interaction.
Stirling Sharpe, Charles Mountifield, and Kevin Filo
The global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in restrictions on gatherings of large crowds, the suspension of live sport events across the globe, and the relegation of topical televised sport to broadcasts of past events and competitions. Consequently, there has been a shift in focus from the entertainment aspect of sport to the health and well-being aspects of sport. As athletes, teams, and sport organizations have become subject to government legislation concerning physical distancing, self-isolation, and lockdowns, the resultant spare time has presented the opportunity for individual athletes and sport organizations to pursue an approach to social media that includes viral challenges, fundraising, and socializing online. This paper provides a commentary on select high-profile athletes’ and sport organizations’ social media behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has adopted an altruistic tone.