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Dae Hee Kwak and Sean Pradhan

Three experiments explore how sport consumers respond to sponsor advertisements featuring a team that lost a pivotal game. Drawing from social identity and appraisal theories, the authors hypothesize and find that high identifiers experience stronger negative emotions but less identity threat than low identifiers following their favorite team’s loss. When an advertisement features the losing team, low identifiers show less favorable evaluations toward the brand, whereas high identifiers report more favorable assessments. The results demonstrate that the tendency to hide and escape from the source of threat (losing team) among low identifiers is evidenced in processing marketing communications, whereas high identifiers display more positive evaluations toward the brand when the advertisement acknowledged the loss. The study findings provide implications for sponsors to consider different messaging strategies depending on the level of team identification with the losing team.

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Jimmy Sanderson, Matthew Zimmerman, Sarah Stokowski, and Alison Fridley

virtual abuse. Second, it would be fruitful to try to predict what kinds of fans are prone to engaging in maladaptive PSI versus enacting supportive communication. Experimental-design research that integrates fan-identification levels would be helpful in providing more understanding of fan psychology and

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Samuel D. Hakim

; Frederick et al., 2012 ; Trepte & Loy, 2017 ). Team origin and geographical accessibility are important to fan psychology, as their ability to interact with the team and other fans directly can play a role in their identity ( Kolbe & James, 2000 ; Lock, et al., 2011 ). Lock et al. ( 2011 ) interviewed new