Female sport fan research has been gaining momentum in recent years (e.g., Farrell, Fink, & Fields, 2011; Osborne & Coombs, 2013; Pope, 2011, 2013; Sveinson & Hoeber, 2015). Much of this research focuses on the marginalization that these sport fans experience (e.g., Crawford & Gosling, 2004; Jones, 2008; Sherlock & Elsden, 2000), with little attention given to experiences of empowerment. Therefore, this study sought to explore if female sport fans’ experiences involve marginalization, empowerment, or both and what contributes to these experiences. Multiple individual interviews were conducted with seven highly identified, displaced female sport fans. The data were analyzed through a three-step process involving open, axial, and selective coding (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The findings demonstrated that the participants experience marginalization based on assumptions that women are inauthentic sport fans. They also felt empowered when they were able to demonstrate legitimacy and authenticity in their fanship.
Katherine Sveinson and Larena Hoeber
Yann Abdourazakou, Xuefei (Nancy) Deng, and Gashaw Abeza
The popularity and acceptance of social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram) by athletes, coaches, managers, teams, leagues, fans, events, and sport governing bodies is widespread today ( Abeza, O’Reilly, Finch, Séguin, & Nadeau, 2020 ). The expansive reach of social
Jason Daniels, Thilo Kunkel, and Adam Karg
have challenges, they have established levels of interest and brand traits to align with. However, unlike established leagues and teams, new sport teams entering new or start-up leagues—the focus of this research—face significant challenges in that they do not have history or existing loyal fan bases
Akira Asada, Yong Jae Ko, and Wonseok (Eric) Jang
In the field of sport management, researchers have examined the process of becoming a sports fan within the realm of sport socialization research ( Funk & James, 2001 , 2004 ; James, 2001 ; McPherson, 1976 ; Melnick & Wann, 2004 , 2011 ). Sport socialization refers to the process by which
Rachel Allison and Chris Knoester
Self-reported sports fan identification among U.S. adults is high. In 2015, Gallup reported that 60% of American adults identified as sports fans, and a 2016 survey of U.S. adults found that 73% reported themselves to be fans or that they “closely followed a sport” ( Jones, 2015 ; Thorson
Daniel Weimar, Brian P. Soebbing, and Pamela Wicker
analysis. Finally, Morgulev et al. ( 2018 ) commented that the “use of social media analytics is a practice at the frontier of measuring fan engagement” (p. 217). The present study has two purposes, one thematical and one methodological in nature. The first purpose is to examine the effects of game
Jessica L. David, Matthew D. Powless, Jacqueline E. Hyman, DeJon M. Purnell, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, and Shelbi Fisher
capitalized on the popularity of the platform to build closer relationships with fans and enhance the consumer experience ( Browning & Sanderson, 2012 ). Teams and organizations can promote their brand and strengthen their fan base by engaging with followers through interactive marketing and promotional
Matthew Katz, Aaron C. Mansfield, and B. David Tyler
characteristics of one’s social network ( Song, Son, & Lin, 2011 ). Consistent with a network approach to social support and well-being, we aimed to extend the study of sport spectatorship and well-being outcomes by emphasizing the role of sport fan network characteristics. Previous scholarship has linked sport
Lindsey J. Meân and Jeffrey W. Kassing
The purpose of this study was to examine identity and spectator/fan communication at youth sporting events. Data were collected through naturalistic observation of 44 youth sporting events. The median age range of the athletes was 6–11 years. Critical discourse analysis revealed the enactment of overlapping and conflicting identities (sports fan/spectator, coach, and parent) and the re/production of the ideology of winning (at all costs) and aggressive competition, rather than participation, support, and “unconditional” encouragement. In particular, the enactment or performance of sports identities, including identification with athletes, was observed to overlap with the enactment of parental identities and identification with children in ways that suggested that the salient issue was enhancement of parent self-categorization as sports spectator/fan, coach, and parent of a great athlete through the success of the child-athlete. That is, talk and identity performance were less about the children and more about parents’ identities.
Shannon Kerwin and Larena Hoeber
The main goal of our article is to encourage personal reflection within the field of sport management as a tool to strengthen methodological approaches in our research. We explore and discuss the utility of collaborative self-ethnography as one way to acknowledge personal identities through a reflexive account of our experiences as sport fans and sport researchers with this methodology. We draw on a previous study of our experiences as sport fans to illustrate techniques, downfalls, and benefits of studying one’s experiences in a collaborative methodological approach. We have two objectives: First, we hope to encourage sport management researchers to acknowledge and reflect on their personal identities related to sport, such as being a fan, coach, volunteer, or former participant, in their research. Second, we aim to demonstrate the utility of collaborative self-ethnography as one way to incorporate reflexivity in sport management research and theory development.