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Annie Fex, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Marie-Eve Filion, Antony D. Karelis and Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre

Objectives:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of elliptical high intensity interval training (HIIT) on metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.

Methods:

Sixteen pre- (n = 8) and type 2 diabetes (n = 8) participants completed this study. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, anthropometric measurements, body composition (DXA), blood pressure, resting heart rate, VO2max, and dietary factors, as well as total and physical activity energy expenditure, were measured. The HIIT program on the elliptical was performed 3 times a week for 12 weeks.

Results:

After the intervention, we observed a significant improvement for fasting blood glucose, waist and hip circumference, appendicular fat mass, leg lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, and VO2max (P < .05). In addition, we noted a lower tendency for leg fat mass (P = .06) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .05) as well as a higher tendency for total energy expenditure (P = .06) after the intervention.

Conclusions:

The current study indicates that elliptical HIIT seems to improve metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

( Campo et al., 2015 ), blood lipids ( Chang, Koo, Chen, & Lin, 2013 ), glycosylated serum protein, and fasting blood glucose (FBG; Taylor-Piliae, Silva, & Sheremeta, 2012 ; Zhang & Fu, 2008 ), which are risk factors of stroke. The authors’ previous meta-analysis also confirmed that Tai Chi is

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, John M. Schuna Jr, Damon L. Swift, Amber T. Dragg, Allison B. Davis, Corby K. Martin, William D. Johnson and Timothy S. Church

variables included systolic and diastolic blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose and insulin, flow-mediated dilation, gait speed, and ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL) determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods The study design and methods

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Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin

larger single-hour energy deficits ( p  = .023) compared with subjects with normal RMR (Table  4 ). No difference in protein intake between subjects with normal RMR (1.8 ± 0.4 g·kg −1 ·day −1 ) and subjects with suppressed RMR (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg −1 ·day −1 ) was observed. All subjects had fasting blood

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Yandiswa Y. Yako, Mogamat S. Hassan, Rajiv T. Erasmus, Lize van der Merwe, Susan Janse van Rensburg and Tandi Edith Matsha

Background:

There is evidence demonstrating that the contribution of sedentary behavior and effect of physical activity on metabolic phenotypes is mediated by polymorphisms in genes.

Methods:

The type and frequency of physical activity was assessed by means of structured questionnaires in 1555 South African school learners. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured using standard procedures. The effect of different types and frequency of physical activity on obesity-related traits was assessed in relation to MC3R T6K and V81I genotypes in 430 of the learners.

Results:

Levels of total cholesterol were significantly lower in learners carrying the MC3R T6K and V81I minor alleles, after adjusting for age, race, gender, and each specific physical activity category. An activity-by-genotype interaction was also detected: learners heterozygous for the V81I polymorphism and performed house chores often had reduced total cholesterol. Though no association was observed between frequency of physical activity and BMI, television viewing was significantly associated with an increase in height, weight and marginally with waist circumference.

Conclusion:

Our findings suggest that physical activity even in the form of house chores has a positive effect on metabolic traits and this effect is further enhanced in the presence of MC3R polymorphisms.

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Cristiane Petra Miculis, Wagner De Campos and Margaret Cristina da Silva Boguszewski

Background:

The aim of this study was to correlate glycemic control (GC) and variables of physical activity levels (PAL) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods:

Fifty children and adolescents with T1DM were selected. Personal and medical data for the patients were collected. Physical evaluations of body weight and sexual maturation were undertaken. Bouchard’s questionnaire was applied to evaluate PAL as well as for time spent on physical activities.

Results:

Sixty-four percent of the subjects were sexually mature. Differences were observed between females and males in insulin dose, duration of light physical activity, and sleeping time (P < .05). Ninety percent presented poor GC and 80% had a low PAL. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was significantly correlated with PAL, with sedentary time, and with sleeping time. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly correlated with sedentary time and sleeping time. Among the three groups of PAL (insufficient × moderate × active) there were differences in HbA1c (%), FBG (mg/dL), duration of disease (years), and insulin dose (UI/kg/day) (P < 0.001).

Conclusion:

GC was significantly correlated with PAL. Among the three groups of physical activity level, the most active group was seen to have the best GC.

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Melissa Bopp, Sara Wilcox, Marilyn Laken, Steven P. Hooker, Deborah Parra-Medina, Ruth Saunders, Kimberly Butler, Elizabeth A. Fallon and Lottie McClorin

Background:

Physical activity (PA) participation offers many benefits especially among ethnic groups that experience health disparities. Partnering with faith-based organizations allows for a more culturally tailored approach to changing health behaviors.

Methods:

8 Steps to Fitness was a faith-based behavior-change intervention promoting PA among members of African American churches. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine differences between the intervention group (n=72) and comparison group (n = 74). Health (resting blood pressure, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, fasting blood glucose), psycho-social (PA self-efficacy, social support, enjoyment, self-regulation, depression), and behavioral variables (PA, diet) were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Repeated measures ANCOVAs tested changes across time between groups.

Results:

At 3-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in body mass index, waist circumference and social support than the control group. At 6-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and depressive symptoms. There was notable attrition from both the intervention (36%) and the comparison group (58%).

Conclusions:

This study was conducted in a real-world setting, and provided insight into how to deliver a culturally-tailored PA intervention program for African Americans with a potential for dissemination.

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Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy and Jamie F. Burr

Low energy availability (LEA), and subsequent relative energy deficiency in sport, has been observed in endurance, aesthetic, and team sport athletes, with limited data on prevalence in athletes in short-burst activities such as sprinting. We examined prevalence of signs and symptoms of LEA in elite female sprinters at the start of the training season (PRE), and at the end of a 5-month indoor training period (POST). Four of 13 female sprinters (31%) presented at PRE testing with at least one primary (amenorrhea, low bone mineral density, low follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or estradiol, resting metabolic rate ≤29 kcal/kg fat-free mass, Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire score ≥8) and one secondary indicator of LEA (fasting blood glucose <4 mmol/L, free triiodothyronine <3.5 pmol/L, ferritin <25 μg/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >3.0 mmol/L, fasting insulin <20 pmol/L, low insulin-like growth factor-1, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, and/or diastolic blood pressure <60 mmHg). At POST, seven out of 13 athletes (54%) presented with at least one primary and one secondary indicator of LEA, three of whom had also presented with indicators of LEA at PRE. Five out of 13 (39%) athletes had previous stress fracture history, though this was not associated with current indicators of LEA (PRE: r = .52, p = .07; POST: r = −.07, p = .82). In conclusion, elite female sprinters may present with signs and symptoms of LEA, even after off-season rest. Medical and coaching staff should be aware of the signs and symptoms of LEA and relative energy deficiency in sport and should include appropriate screening and intervention strategies when working with sprinters.

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Heidi K. Byrne, Yeonsoo Kim, Steven R. Hertzler, Celia A. Watt and Craig O. Mattern

Purpose:

To compare serum glucose and insulin responses to 3 preexercise snacks before, during, and after exercise in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and healthy (H) men. In addition, in an IFG population, the authors sought to determine whether a natural fruit snack (i.e., raisins) yields more desirable glucose and insulin concentrations than an energy bar or a glucose solution.

Methods:

The IFG (n = 11, age = 54.5 ± 1.3 yr, fasting blood glucose [BG] = 6.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and H groups (n = 9, age = 48.0 ± 3.1 yr, fasting BG = 4.9 ± 0.1 mmol/L) cycled at 50% of VO2peak for 45 min on 4 occasions after consuming water or 50 g of carbohydrate from raisins (R), an energy bar (EB), or a glucose beverage (GLU). Metabolic markers were measured before, during, and after exercise.

Results:

In all nutritional conditions, glucose concentrations of the IFG group were consistently higher than in the H group. Differences between IFG and H groups in insulin concentrations were sporadic and isolated. In the IFG group, preexercise glucose concentration was lower in the R condition than in GLU. Ten and 20 min into exercise, glucose concentrations in the R and EB conditions were lower than in GLU. Insulin concentrations were lower in the R condition than in EB and GLU immediately before exercise and at Minute 10 but at 20 min R remained lower than only GLU.

Conclusion:

Glucose concentrations were higher in the IFG group regardless of preexercise snack. Compared with the glucose solution, raisins lowered both the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, whereas the energy bar reduced glycemia but not insulinemia.

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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Amanda E. Staiano

triglycerides and glucose were obtained on a Beckman Coulter DXC600 (Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, CA). A continuous cardiometabolic risk score was computed following the recommendations of Eisenmann 13 as follows: BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP = [(2 × DBP) + SBP]/3), HDL-C, fasting blood glucose, and