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Ángel Gutiérrez, Marcela González-Gross, Manuel Delgado and Manuel J. Castillo

This study investigates, in young nonobese healthy athletes, the consequences of a 3-day fast coupled, or not, to enhanced physical activity. Eight male subjects, aged 21 ± 2 years, fasted for 3 days on two separate occasions, 4 weeks apart. On the first occasion, subjects continued their daily training activities. On the second occasion, a daily physical exercise program was added to these activities. Subjects were evaluated before and after 24 hours and 72 hours of fasting. Evaluation consisted of body composition, basal respiratory exchange ratio, plasma metabolic parameters, perception-reaction time (both simple and discriminant), hand grip strength, and physical work capacity at 170 beats per minute (PWC170). Fasting determined significant reductions in body weight, body fat, and muscle mass. These reductions were not affected by enhanced physical activity. Basal respiratory exchange ratio decreased with fasting but was not influenced by increased training activities. Fasting determined a significant decrease in blood glucose levels, while plasma proteins, urea, uric acid, and free fatty acids increased. Perception-reaction time and hand grip strength were unmodified during fasting. By contrast, PWC170 was significantly and progressively reduced during fasting, and this decrease was not reversed by an increase in training activities.

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Chaouachi Anis, John B. Leiper, Souissi Nizar, Aaron J. Coutts and Chamari Karim

The month-long diurnal Ramadan fast imposes a major challenge to Islamic athletes. Sporting events are programmed throughout the year, with the result that training and competition are often scheduled during Ramadan. The small numbers of well-controlled studies that have examined the effects of Ramadan on athletic performance suggest that few aspects of physical fitness are negatively affected, and only modest decrements are observed. Whereas subjective feelings of fatigue and other mood indicators are often cited as implying additional stress on the athlete throughout Ramadan, most studies show these measures may not be reflected in decreases in performance. The development and early implementation of sensible eating and sleeping strategies can greatly alleviate the disruptions to training and competitiveness, thus allowing the athlete to perform at a high level while undertaking the religious intermittent fast. Nevertheless, further research is required to understand the mechanisms and energy pathways that allow athletes to maintain their performance capacities during Ramadan, and which factors are responsible for the observed decrements in performance of some individuals.

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

Fast bowling is a specialized discipline within the game of cricket. Typically, fast bowlers form the majority of the “bowling attack” against the opposition team. Each fast bowler presents with varying skill sets and abilities. Some bowlers are renowned for their excellent bowling accuracy (eg

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Dean J. McNamara, Tim J. Gabbett, Peter Blanch and Luke Kelly

Cricket, like many other popular international team sports, requires varying player types to perform very specific roles within the team. One of these roles in cricket is fast bowling. Fast bowlers are required to bowl at high ball velocities to opposition batters. Fast bowling has been associated

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

A variety of special diets are adopted by track-and-field athletes for a multitude of reasons. Gluten-free (GFD), vegetarian, and fasting diets are among the more prevalent diets adopted for health, ethical, religious, and performance purposes. A low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides

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Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis and Albertas Skurvydas

adaptation involves two memory processes: (a) a fast process whereby motor output both adapts and decays quickly and (b) a slow process whereby it adapts and decays more gradually ( Smith, Ghazizadeh, & Shadmehr, 2006 ; Ungerleider, Doyon, & Karni, 2002 ). Older adults usually exhibit impairments in

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Afshin Samani and Mathias Kristiansen

similarity of synergy components across two velocity conditions (slow and fast) of bench press and the intersubject similarity of the synergy components within each of the velocity conditions in an attempt to elucidate the role of lifting velocity on muscle coordination. We hypothesized that intrasubject

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Matt Greig and Benjamin Child

Epidemiological research in cricket has highlighted the risk associated with fast bowling, accounting for up to 66% of all injuries 1 and with an annual injury prevalence of 20.6%. 2 Lumbar stress fractures are the most prevalent injury, accountable for 15% of missed playing time. 2 The fast

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Carolina F. Wilke, Felipe Augusto P. Fernandes, Flávio Vinícius C. Martins, Anísio M. Lacerda, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Samuel P. Wanner and Rob Duffield

postmatch recovery in soccer concluded that while sprint, hormonal, and skill/technical parameters are restored within 72 hours, muscle damage, countermovement jump (CMJ), and perceived well-being take longer time. 3 However, high interindividual variability of the recovery time line exists (ie, faster and

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Kirsty Brock, Prokopios Antonellis, Matthew I. Black, Fred J. DiMenna, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M. Jones and Stephen J. Bailey

mean skeletal-muscle power output during a short-duration high-intensity endurance event, resulting in a faster race-completion time. 5 Completing high-intensity exercise prior to (priming exercise), or adopting a fast-start/all-out starting strategy during, high-intensity exercise has been shown to