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Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Luis Andreu-Caravaca, María Carrasco-Poyatos, Pedro J. Benito, and Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias

, nutritional, or pharmacological aids; and the studies examined the acute effects of interventions or they did not provide data on the specified variables. For those studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the following outcomes were analyzed: (a) body composition (BMI [kg/m 2 ], fat mass [%], and the

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Eric C. Haakonssen, David T. Martin, Louise M. Burke, and David G. Jenkins

Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30–40 kcal · kg fat-free mass−1 · d−1 and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (−2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (−3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

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George Wilson, Jerry Hill, Daniel Martin, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

assessing changes in body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). It was reported that 2.5 kg of absolute body fat was the lowest achievable fat mass without unacceptable losses of lean muscle mass, along with such severe food cravings that the study could not continue. Indeed, when 2.5 kg

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James C. Morehen, Carl Langan-Evans, Elliot C.R. Hall, Graeme L. Close, and James P. Morton

 al., 2019 ; Langan-Evans et al., 2020 ) such that a fat mass “overshoot” occurs, subsequently presenting as increased adiposity and absolute fat mass. This pattern of “weight-cycling” (i.e., repeated cycles of weight loss and regain within short timescales) is potentially problematic in terms of increasing

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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad, and Gary J. Slater

), distinct differences in body composition exist. Forwards have consistently been shown to be heavier, taller, and possess more fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), whereas backs display proportionally lower body fat ( Lees et al., 2017 ; Zemski et al., 2015 ). Optimal body composition assists athletes in

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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad, Damian J. Marsh, Karen Hind, and Gary J. Slater

). Increases in LM can influence the power-to-weight ratio of players, thus increasing the potential to proliferate momentum, strength, power, and speed ( Bell et al., 2005 ). Excess fat mass (FM) has negative implications for thermoregulation ( Selkirk & McLellan, 2001 ) and concurrently increases energy

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Mathieu L. Maltais, Karine Perreault, Alexandre Courchesne-Loyer, Jean-Christophe Lagacé, Razieh Barsalani, and Isabelle J. Dionne

The decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat oxidation with aging is associated with an increase in fat mass (FM), and both could be prevented by exercise such as resistance training. Dairy consumption has also been shown to promote FM loss in different subpopulations and to be positively associated with fat oxidation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resistance exercise combined with dairy supplementation could have an additive impact on FM and energy metabolism, especially in individuals with a deficit in muscle mass. Twenty-six older overweight sarcopenic men (65 ± 5 years old) were recruited for the study. They participated in 4 months of resistance exercise and were randomized into three groups for postexercise shakes (control, dairy, and nondairy isocaloric and isoprotein supplement with 375 ml and ~280 calories per shake). Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and REE by indirect calorimetry. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, inflammatory profile, and blood lipid profile were also measured. Significant decreases were observed with FM only in the dairy supplement group; no changes were observed for any other variables. To conclude, FM may decrease without changes in metabolic parameters during resistance training and dairy supplementation with no caloric restriction without having any impact on metabolic properties. More studies are warranted to explain this significant decrease in FM.

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Beatriz Rael, Nuria Romero-Parra, Víctor M. Alfaro-Magallanes, Laura Barba-Moreno, Rocío Cupeiro, Xanne Janse de Jonge, Ana B. Peinado, and on Behalf of the IronFEMME Study Group

both exogenous sex hormones causes the greatest increase. 16 Furthermore, a recent review concluded that ethinyl estradiol administration could inhibit the lipolysis process, 19 thereby affecting fat mass (FM) and FFM. These findings suggest that there may be differences in BC variables throughout an

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Ava Farley, Gary J. Slater, and Karen Hind

quantify fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) ( Ackland et al., 2012 ; Kerr et al., 2017 ). Depending on time and resources, the four most popular methods used on athletic populations are air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance

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Francesco Campa, Matteo Levi Micheli, Matilde Pompignoli, Roberto Cannataro, Massimo Gulisano, Stefania Toselli, Gianpiero Greco, and Giuseppe Coratella

as the arctangent of Xc/ R  × 180°/ π . Body composition was assessed according to a 3-compartment molecular model, as shown in Figure  2 . Total body water and fat mass were calculated using specific equations 20 , 21 developed for athletes as follows: Total body water   ( kg )   =   0.286 + 0