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Jeffrey A. Graham, Marlene A. Dixon and Nancy Hazen-Swann

Youth sport organizations traditionally have focused their concern on training parents in sport and coaching skills, but have largely ignored their parent role. However, an increasing body of work exploring the phenomenon of fathering through sport has highlighted the need for youth sport organizations to become aware of and understand the dual roles of father and coach/volunteer and the potential impact on the participant and the sport organization of using sport as a site and mechanism for fathering (Kay, 2009; Messner, 2009). The purpose of this article is to examine recent literature about the ways—both positive and negative—that fathers use sport as a way to fulfill fatherhood responsibilities and the implications for sport management scholars and practitioners, particularly in voluntary youth sport organizations.

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Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

ages of 13–19 years, and 16 children above the age of 20 years. This sample therefore represents different stages of fatherhood and allows for the exploration of the work–life interface across a wide range of fathering challenges (see Bianchi et al. , 2006 ; Parker & Livingston, 2016

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Jeff Alexander Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

The work-family interface continues to be an important research area as the positive (Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, & Grzywacz, 2006; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Parasuraman & Greenhaus, 2002; Sieber, 1974) and negative (Duxbury, Lyons, & Higgins, 2011; Frone, Russell, & Barnes, 1996; Greenhaus & Parasuraman, 1999; Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964; Mullen, Kelley, & Kelloway, 2011; Netemeyer, Boles, & McMurrian, 1996) consequences of successfully balancing work and family have implications for both individuals and organizations. Within sport management, most research has focused on issues surrounding the work-family interface of coaching mothers (Bruening & Dixon, 2007; Dixon & Bruening, 2005, 2007; Dixon & Sagas, 2007; Schenewark & Dixon, 2012; Palmer & Leberman, 2009). Recent research outside of sport management suggests that fathers also perceive tension between work and family (Galinsky, Aumann, & Bond, 2011; Harrington, Van Deusen, & Humberd, 2011; Parker & Wang, 2013). Therefore, this article examines the work-family interface of coaching fathers, with a focus on the further development of a research agenda.

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Chris Knoester and Theo Randolph

). We also offer a much-needed quantitative assessment of the patterns and implications of father-child interactions in sports and outdoor activities ( Coakley, 2011 ; Eckstein et al., 2010 ; Messner & Musto, 2014 ), and situate the analysis within useful fatherhood and parenting conceptual frameworks

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Anna Posbergh

, such as James Dabb (who believed testosterone was linked to violence and social class), Lee Gettler (whose research concluded that lower testosterone levels were linked to fatherhood), and Allan Mazur (whose research gave scientific weight to the idea of innate Black criminality), the ovulation chapter

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Cody D. Neshteruk, Deborah J. Jones, Asheley Skinner, Alice Ammerman, Deborah F. Tate and Dianne S. Ward

’s physical activity often associated with fatherhood. 29 Since all fathers in this study demonstrated some level of coparticipation with their child, this influential practice should be a primary target for family-based physical activity promotion. Similar to findings in this study, research has shown that

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Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl

, and the perceptions that personal experiences of fatherhood contribute positively to a man’s ability to express empathy in leadership; however, the same privilege did not extend to female coaches who were mothers. Tierney ( 1996 ) urges us to examine “how leadership is defined, who gets involved, and

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Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin

athletic director to balance work and family. Studies have shown that, unlike fatherhood, motherhood seems to be a routine concern for hiring committees ( Dixon & Bruening, 2005 ; Hochschild, 1989 , 1997 ). Hiring committees may erroneously assume that female candidates are less likely to perform well in

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Langston Clark

is a form of surrogate fatherhood within the Black American community. In educational settings, Black men have been seen as playing the role of fathers in the classroom ( Brockenbrough, 2015 ). In this capacity, Black males have been stereotyped as disciplinarians but actually occupy roles that are

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Jessica Love and Lindsey Conlin Maxwell

. ( 2003 ). Constructing parenthood: Portrayals of motherhood and fatherhood in popular American magazines . Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering, 5 ( 1 ), 179 – 185 . Franks , S. , & O’Neill , D. ( 2016 ). Women reporting sport: Still a man’s game? Journalism, 17 ( 4 ), 474