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Chris Knoester and Theo Randolph

Research on the benefits of father involvement in children’s lives has become common ( Lamb & Lewis, 2010 ; Sarkadi et al., 2008 ). Similarly, a great deal of work has been done on the implications of sports and other physical activities for health outcomes ( Kahan & McKenzie, 2015 ; Project Play

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Cody D. Neshteruk, Deborah J. Jones, Asheley Skinner, Alice Ammerman, Deborah F. Tate and Dianne S. Ward

practices, which are specific behaviors parents use to support or limit children’s physical activity. 4 – 6 However, most research has focused on mothers, with little empirical attention devoted to the role of fathers. 7 , 8 Although limited research has examined father involvement in children’s lifestyle

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Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

support network and (b) a workplace atmosphere and culture that both support the family role and encourage an ethic of autonomy ( Bruening et al. , 2016 ). Less is understood, however, about the ways men who are fathers in the sport industry manage work and family duties ( Graham & Dixon, 2014

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Kyra Hamilton and Katherine M. White

Background:

Parents are at risk for physical inactivity; however, few studies have designed physical activity (PA) interventions specifically applied to individuals with young children. To ensure the effectiveness of interventions, it may be useful to first elicit the needs from the target population and incorporate salient strategies identified to the design and delivery of a resultant intervention. We aimed to explore strategies for what to include in and how to best deliver a program designed to increase parental PA.

Methods:

Twelve parents (6 mothers, 6 fathers) of children younger than 5 years participated in focus group discussions exploring strategies for an intervention program designed to increase parental PA.

Results:

A range of themes such as Focus on the Children and Flexible Life/Family Plans imbedded in strategies such as persuasion and information, problem-solving, skill building, and environmental approaches were identified. In addition, a range of strategies for how to best deliver a parental PA intervention evidenced in emerging themes such as Diverse and Brief and Individualized Approach was discussed.

Conclusions:

Future research should continue to adopt a ground up, community-based approach to the development and implementation of interventions for this at-risk group to ensure sustained involvement in regular PA.

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Jeffrey A. Graham, Marlene A. Dixon and Nancy Hazen-Swann

Youth sport organizations traditionally have focused their concern on training parents in sport and coaching skills, but have largely ignored their parent role. However, an increasing body of work exploring the phenomenon of fathering through sport has highlighted the need for youth sport organizations to become aware of and understand the dual roles of father and coach/volunteer and the potential impact on the participant and the sport organization of using sport as a site and mechanism for fathering (Kay, 2009; Messner, 2009). The purpose of this article is to examine recent literature about the ways—both positive and negative—that fathers use sport as a way to fulfill fatherhood responsibilities and the implications for sport management scholars and practitioners, particularly in voluntary youth sport organizations.

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Jeff Alexander Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

The work-family interface continues to be an important research area as the positive (Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, & Grzywacz, 2006; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Parasuraman & Greenhaus, 2002; Sieber, 1974) and negative (Duxbury, Lyons, & Higgins, 2011; Frone, Russell, & Barnes, 1996; Greenhaus & Parasuraman, 1999; Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964; Mullen, Kelley, & Kelloway, 2011; Netemeyer, Boles, & McMurrian, 1996) consequences of successfully balancing work and family have implications for both individuals and organizations. Within sport management, most research has focused on issues surrounding the work-family interface of coaching mothers (Bruening & Dixon, 2007; Dixon & Bruening, 2005, 2007; Dixon & Sagas, 2007; Schenewark & Dixon, 2012; Palmer & Leberman, 2009). Recent research outside of sport management suggests that fathers also perceive tension between work and family (Galinsky, Aumann, & Bond, 2011; Harrington, Van Deusen, & Humberd, 2011; Parker & Wang, 2013). Therefore, this article examines the work-family interface of coaching fathers, with a focus on the further development of a research agenda.

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Mark F. Stewart, Constantino Stavros, Pamm Phillips, Heather Mitchell and Adrian J. Barake

In 1949 the Australian Football League (AFL) introduced a distinctive father–son rule, which allows its member teams to prioritize the recruitment of the sons of former players who had played in a minimum number of games with that team. This paper reveals that some teams have been able to access a statistically significant advantage via this rule, confirming and quantifying that this unique exception compromised the AFL’s reverseorder player draft. In more recent times, through complex reforms, this advantage has been significantly dissipated. Discussion presents this rule as a conundrum for managers as despite potentially compromising the draft, it provides opportunities for off-field marketing communications strategies.

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Stephanie Schoeppe, Markus Röbl, Sebastian Liersch, Christian Krauth and Ulla Walter

Purpose:

To investigate associations between maternal and paternal sport participation, and children’s leisure-time physical activity, and to explore differences by child gender.

Method:

The sample comprised 737 year five students (mean age: 11.0 ± 0.6 years, 52% male) recruited through the Fit for Pisa Project which was conducted in 2008 at 6 secondary schools in Goettingen, Germany. Maternal and paternal sport participation were assessed through child reports of mothers’ and fathers’ weekly participation in sport. Children’s leisure-time physical activity was measured as minutes/week that children engaged in organized and nonorganized sport. Multiple linear regression was used to assess associations between maternal and paternal sport participation, and children’s leisure-time physical activity.

Results:

Both maternal and paternal sport participation were positively associated with children’s leisure-time physical activity (maternal: b = 34.20, p < .001; paternal: b = 25.32, p < .05). When stratifying analyses by child gender, maternal sport participation remained significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity in girls (b = 60.64, p < .001). In contrast, paternal sport participation remained significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity in boys (b = 43.88, p < .01).

Conclusion:

Both maternal and paternal modeling positively influence children’s leisure-time physical activity.

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Kyra Hamilton, Stephen Cox and Katherine M. White

Parents are at risk for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity (PA) is scarce. We integrated self-determined motivation, planning, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to better understand parental PA. Parents (252 mothers, 206 fathers) completed a main questionnaire assessing measures underpinning these constructs and a 1-week follow-up of PA behavior to examine whether self-determined motivation indirectly influenced intention via the TPB variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) and intention indirectly influenced behavior via planning. We found self-determined motivation on intention was fully mediated by the TPB variables and intention on behavior was partially mediated by the planning variables. In addition, slight differences in the model’s paths between the sexes were revealed. The results illustrate the range of important determinants of parental PA and provide support for the integrated model in explaining PA decision making as well as the importance of examining sex differences.

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Alberto Cei and John H. Salmela