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Worries and Fears Associated With Competitive Gymnastics

Scott B. Martin, Christy M. Polster, Allen W. Jackson, Christy A. Greenleaf, and Gretchen M. Jones

The purpose of this investigation was to explore the frequency and intensity of worries and fears associated with competitive gymnastics. These issues were initially examined in a sample of 7 female college gymnasts using a semistructured guided interview. From the themes that emerged and relevant literature, a survey including parallel intensity and frequency of worry questions was administered to 120 female gymnasts competing in USA Gymnastics sanctioned events. Results indicated that even though gymnasts worry about attempting and performing skills on the balance beam and uneven bars, more of them experienced a greater number of injuries on the floor exercise. Analysis of covariance for intensity and frequency using age as the covariate revealed that advanced gymnasts had more intense worries about body changes and performing skills and more frequent worries about body changes than less skilled gymnasts (p < .05). Advanced gymnasts also reported using more strategies to modify their worries than did less skilled gymnasts.

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Perfectionism, Fear of Failure, and Affective Responses to Success and Failure: The Central Role of Fear of Experiencing Shame and Embarrassment

Sam S. Sagar and Joachim Stoeber

This study investigated how aspects of perfectionism in athletes (N = 388) related to the fears of failure proposed by Conroy et al. (2002), and how perfectionism and fears of failure predicted positive and negative affect after imagined success and failure in sports competitions. Results showed that perfectionistic personal standards showed a negative relationship with fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment and a positive relationship with positive affect after success, whereas perfectionistic concern over mistakes and perceived parental pressure showed a positive relationship with fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment and with negative affect after failure. Moreover, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment fully mediated the relationship between perfectionistic concern and negative affect and between coach pressure and negative affect. The findings demonstrate that fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment is central in the relationship between perfectionism and fear of failure, and that perfectionistic concern about mistakes and perceived coach pressure are aspects of perfectionism that predict fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment and negative affect after failure.

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Joint Association of Neighborhood Environment and Fear of Falling on Physical Activity Among Frail Older Adults

Kazuhiro Harada, Hyuntae Park, Sangyoon Lee, Hiroyuki Shimada, Daisuke Yoshida, Yuya Anan, and Takao Suzuki

This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity among frail older adults and whether these associations are moderated by fear of falling. Participants were 238 frail older adults. Daily step counts and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Participants completed the abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale; fear of falling and demographic and health-related factors were measured by a questionnaire. The interaction between crime safety and fear of falling was significantly associated with step count (p = .009) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = .018) in multiple regression analysis. Stratified according to fear of falling, crime safety was significantly associated with steps (p = .007) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = .030) in the low fear of falling group. The results suggest that crime safety is associated with physical activity among frail older adults, and this association is moderated by fear of falling.

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Fear Avoidance Following Musculoskeletal Injury in Male Adolescent Gaelic Footballers

Sinéad O’Keeffe, Niamh Ní Chéilleachair, and Siobhán O’Connor

necessity for holistic recovery from injury. According to the integrated model of response to sport injury, the psychological reaction to injury is dependent upon situational and personal factors, along with differing behavioral and emotional responses to an injury situation. 17 Fear avoidance, defined as

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College Athletes With Ankle Sprain History Exhibit Greater Fear-Avoidance Beliefs

Megan N. Houston, Johanna M. Hoch, and Matthew C. Hoch

have become comfortable treating the physical impairments (ie, range of motion deficits and strength deficits). However, little is known about the psychosocial factors, such as injury-related fear, that contribute to an individual’s disablement following an ankle sprain. Physical and psychological

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Injury-Related Fear in Individuals With and Without Chronic Ankle Instability: A Systematic Review

Ashley M.B. Suttmiller and Ryan S. McCann

identified another area regarding the potential psychological changes that may be associated with the condition. Specifically identified is that injury-related fear may arise after an ankle sprain injury. 7 Injury-related fear has been identified in patients across other musculoskeletal conditions 10 – 12

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Kinesiophobia and Fear Avoidance in Older Adults: A Scoping Review on the State of Research Activity

Vanessa Alpalhão, Nuno Cordeiro, and Pedro Pezarat-Correia

kinesiophobia ( Cai et al., 2018 ; Dąbek et al., 2020 ; De Vroey et al., 2020 ). In addition, the increasing prevalence of age-related painful disorders makes pain a common complaint among older adults, which, in light of the Fear Avoidance Model (FAM), is known as a possible trigger for fear avoidance and

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Using Massage to Combat Fear-Avoidance and the Pain Tension Cycle

Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield, and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

Key Points ▸ Fear-avoidance and the pain tension cycle contribute to chronic pain. ▸ Massage may modulate physiological and psychological factors associated with pain postinjury. ▸ Breaking the pain tension cycle facilitates progression in rehabilitation and earlier recovery. Pain is often

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Exploring Fear of Falling and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Older Women With Vertebral Fractures

Matteo Ponzano, Jenna C. Gibbs, Jonathan D. Adachi, Maureen C. Ashe, Angela M. Cheung, Keith D. Hill, David Kendler, Aliya A. Khan, Caitlin McArthur, Alexandra Papaioannou, Lehana Thabane, John D. Wark, and Lora M. Giangregorio

, Papaioannou, et al., 2014 ). However, fear of falling is a common issue among individuals with osteoporosis and is strongly associated with decreased health-related quality of life ( Guillemin et al., 2013 ). Fear of falling is a persistent concern of falling that makes people avoid certain activities, even

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Flikikammo: When Gymnasts Lose Previously Automatic Backward Moving Skills

Annamari Maaranen, Erica G. Beachy, Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Thaddeus J. France, and Albert J. Petitpas

Mental blocks, phenomena in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic skills, are well known but poorly understood. Study 1 was designed to assess mental blocks in gymnastics and determine if such blocks are distinct from related conditions, such as slumps, choking, and fear of injury. Mental blocks were reported to have unique characteristics and to affect backward moving skills. Study 2 was a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 5 gymnasts currently experiencing mental blocks on backward moving skills. Such block is called flikikammo and was described as cycling on and off, spreading to other events and skills, affecting visualization, and worsening when performance of the affected skills was forced by coaches. The findings are the first to detail the experience of gymnasts currently experiencing the condition. Additional research may help identify ways to alleviate and/or prevent flikikammo.