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Hendrik Reimann, Tyler Fettrow and John J. Jeka

the control of quiet, upright stance with a set of simple feedback control laws, where a deviation from a set point, detected by one or multiple sensor signals, is mapped onto a counterforce that brings the CoM to the set point ( Mergner, Maurer, & Peterka, 2003 ; Peterka, 2002 ). This counterforce

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Raviraj Nataraj, Musa L. Audu, Robert F. Kirsch and Ronald J. Triolo

This pilot study investigated the potential of using trunk acceleration feedback control of center of pressure (COP) against postural disturbances with a standing neuroprosthesis following paralysis. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were trained to use three-dimensional trunk acceleration as input to predict changes in COP for able-bodied subjects undergoing perturbations during bipedal stance. Correlation coefficients between ANN predictions and actual COP ranged from 0.67 to 0.77. An ANN trained across all subject-normalized data was used to drive feedback control of ankle muscle excitation levels for a computer model representing a standing neuroprosthesis user. Feedback control reduced average upper-body loading during perturbation onset and recovery by 42% and peak loading fby 29% compared with optimal, constant excitation.

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Scott O. Cloyd, Mont Hubbard and LeRoy W. Alaways

Feedback control of a human-powered single-track bicycle is investigated through the use of a linearized dynamical model in order to develop feedback gains that can be implemented by a human pilot in an actual vehicle. The object of the control scheme is to satisfy two goals: balance and tracking. The pilot should be able not only to keep the vehicle upright but also to direct the forward motion as desired. The two control inputs, steering angle and rider lean angle, are assumed to be determined by the rider as a product of feedback gains and “measured” values of the state variables: vehicle lean, lateral deviation from the desired trajectory, and their derivatives. Feedback gains are determined through linear quadratic regulator theory. This results in two control schemes, a “full” optimal feedback control and a less complicated technique that is more likely to be usable by an inexperienced pilot. Theoretical optimally controlled trajectories are compared with experimental trajectories in a lane change maneuver.

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Arthur D. Kuo

A simple pendulum model is used to study how feedforward and feedback can be combined to control rhythmic limb movements. I show that a purely feedforward central pattern generator (CPG) is highly sensitive to unexpected disturbances. Pure feedback control analogous to reflex pathways can compensate for disturbances but is sensitive to imperfect sensors. I demonstrate that for systems subject to both unexpected disturbances and sensor noise, a combination of feedforward and feedback can improve performance. This combination is achieved by using a state estimation interpretation, in which a neural oscillator acts as an internal model of limb motion that predicts the state of the limb, and by using alpha-gamma coactivation or its equivalent to generate a sensory error signal that is fed back to entrain the neural oscillator. Such a hybrid feedforward/feedback system can optimally compensate for both disturbances and sensor noise, yet it can also produce fictive locomotion when sensory output is removed, as is observed biologically. CPG behavior arises due to the interaction of the internal model and a feedback control that uses the predicted state. I propose an interpretation of the neural oscillator as a filter for processing sensory information rather than as a generator of commands.

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Eric A. Roy, Linda E. Rohr and Patricia L. Weir

Two experiments are reported that focus on manipulating both the context and the spatial precision of a computer-pointing task. Single goal-directed actions are compared to dual-phase tasks, where participants are required to sequentially attain two goal locations. Results support the idea that for movements in series, movement planning, and online feedback, control can occur simultaneously. Additionally, for single-phase tasks and the final phase of dual-phase tasks, the termination requirement influences the temporal components of the movement. The effects of termination and movement context appear to hold regardless of the spatial precision of the task. This suggests that the effects of spatial precision and movement termination are independent, although both have an impact on the deceleration time for goal-directed movements.

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Eryk P. Przysucha, M. Jane Taylor and Douglas Weber

This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length revealed one significant interaction as older, unaffected boys swayed more than all other groups (p < .01). As a group, boys with DCD displayed smaller anterior-posterior (p < .01) and area of sway (p < .01). Analysis of relative time spent in the corrective phase (p < .002) revealed that boys with DCD spent 54% under feedback control while boys without DCD spent 78%. This was attributed to reduced proprioceptive sensitivity, as confirmed by significant differences between the groups (p < .009) in spectral analysis of peak frequency of sway.

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Rahul Marwaha, Susan J. Hall, Christopher A. Knight and Slobodan Jaric

The aim of the study was to reveal specific aspects of impaired hand function in mildly affected multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Static manipulation tasks were tested in 13 mildly impaired (EDSS 1.5-4) MS patients and 13 age and gender matched controls. The tasks were based either on presumably visually (i.e., feedback) controlled tracing of depicted patterns of load force (LF; produced by symmetric bimanual tension and/or compression applied against an externally fixed device) or on predominantly feed-forward controlled amplitudes of sinusoidal patterns of LF. The task variables (based on accuracy of exerting the required LF pattern) suggested poor performance of MS subjects in feedback, but not in the feed-forward controlled tasks. The patients also revealed higher GF/LF ratio in all tasks. However, the coordination of GF and LF appeared to be comparable in the two groups. These results continue to support the chosen experimental paradigm and suggest that in mildly affected MS patients, sensorimotor deficits and overgripping precede the decoupling of grip and load forces observed in more severely affected patients.

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Julián Gandía, Xavier García-Massó, Adrián Marco-Ahulló and Isaac Estevan

Feedback is one of the most influential factors for motor skills learning. Physical Education teachers commonly use verbal cues to provide knowledge of process (KP) when teaching motor skills, but the ideal presentation frequency for KP in adolescents is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the frequency of KP (i.e., 100%, 67%, 0%) on dynamic balance. Thirty adolescents, age 14–15 years, participated in the study. Performance on a stabilometer platform was used to assess dynamic balance. Participants received feedback after each trial (100%), in two out of three trials (67%), or no feedback during 12 30-s trials of practice. Adolescents who received feedback (67% or 100%) required lower mean velocity to maintain similar dynamic balance performance (i.e., root mean square). Moreover, adolescents receiving 100% feedback had a higher α-scaling than those who did not received it. During the post-test and the retention, both 67% and 100% KP frequencies were effective at improving postural control, compared to the no feedback control.

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Matthew Heath, David A. Westwood and Gordon Binsted

The goal of the present investigation was to explore the putative contributions of feedforward- and feedback-based processes in the control of memory-guided reaching movements. Participants (N = 4) completed an extensive number of reaching movements (2700) to 3 midline targets (20, 30, 40 cm) in 6 visual conditions: full-vision, open-loop, and four memory-guided conditions (0, 200, 400, and 600 ms of delay). To infer limb control, we used a regression technique to examine the within-trial correspondence between the spatial position of the limb at peak acceleration, peak velocity, peak deceleration, and the ultimate movement endpoint. A high degree of within-trial correspondence would suggest that the final position of the limb was largely specified prior to movement onset and not adjusted during the action (i.e., feedforward control); conversely, a low degree of within-trial correspondence would suggest that movements were modified during the reaching trajectory (i.e., feedback control). Full-vision reaches were found to be more accurate and less variable than open-loop and memory-guided reaches. Moreover, full-vision reaches demonstrated only modest within-trial correspondence between the spatial position of the limb at each kinematic marker and the ultimate movement endpoint, suggesting that reaching accuracy was achieved by adjusting the limb trajectory throughout the course of the action. Open-loop and memory-guided movements exhibited strong within-trial correspondence between final limb position and the position of the limb at peak velocity and peak deceleration. This strong correspondence indicates that the final position of the limb was largely determined by processes that occurred before the reach was initiated; errors in the planning process were not corrected during the course of the action. Thus, and contrary to our previous findings in a video-based aiming task, it appears that stored target information is not extensively (if at all) used to modify the trajectory of reaching movements to remembered targets in peripersonal space.

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Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega and Astrid Zech

suggested ( Hamacher et al., 2016 ; Hamacher et al., 2014 ), because according to the minimal intervention principle of optimal feedback control theory ( Todorov & Jordan, 2002 ), perturbations (e.g., dual-task walking) would induce variability predominantly in the task-irrelevant parameters (e