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Athanasios Mouratidis, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Willy Lens, and Georgios Sideridis

Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants’ well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In Study 1, structural equation modeling favored the hypothesized motivational model, in which, after controlling for pretask perceived competence and competence valuation, feedback positively predicted competence satisfaction, which in turn predicted higher levels of vitality and greater intentions to participate, through the mediation of autonomous motivation. No effects on performance were found. Study 2 further showed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between competence satisfaction and well-being, whereas amotivation mediated the negative relation between competence satisfaction and ill-being and rated performance. The discussion focuses on the motivational role of competence feedback in sports and physical education settings.

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Job Fransen, Thomas W.J. Lovell, Kyle J.M. Bennett, Dieter Deprez, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir, and Aaron J. Coutts

The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of restricted visual feedback using stroboscopic eyewear on the dribbling performance of youth soccer players. Three dribble test conditions were used in a within-subjects design to measure the effect of restricted visual feedback on soccer dribbling performance in 189 youth soccer players (age: 10–18 y) classified as fast, average or slow dribblers. The results showed that limiting visual feedback increased dribble test times across all abilities. Furthermore, the largest performance decrement between stroboscopic and full vision conditions was in fast dribblers, showing that fast dribblers were most affected by reduced visual information. This may be due to a greater dependency on visual feedback at increased speeds, which may limit the ability to maintain continuous control of the ball. These findings may have important implications for the development of soccer dribbling ability.

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Karen L. Perell, Robert J. Gregor, and A.M. Erika Scremin

The purpose of this sludy was to compare individual pedal reaclion force components following bicycle training with and without effective force feedback in subjects with unilateral cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Eight ambulatory subjects with CVA were studied on a recumbent bicycle equipped with custom-built pedals, which measure normal and tangential components of the load applied to the pedal surface. Comparisons of normal and tangential pedal reaction forces were made following 1 month of bicycle training (3 times/week for 4 weeks) during retention tests performed without feedback. The ratios of involved to contralateral (I/C ratios) force parameters were used to assess symmetry. Subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups: (a) a feedback group that received visual/verbal feedback regarding effective force patterns, bilaterally, after each trial; and (b) a no-feedback group dial received no feedback. Two critical results were found: (a) tangential pedal forces were significantly more posteriorly directed bilaterally following training across all subjects, but the change was greater for the no-feedback group relative to the feedback group, and (b) effective force feedback training did not demonstrate improvements in the I/C ratios above that of the control group. A more posteriorly applied tangential pedal force may represent increased dorsiflexion and may suggest that bicycle training facilitated ankle control. The cyclical nature of cycling, however, may allow for natural patterns to develop without feedback or may require less frequent use of feedback based on retention test performance.

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Joëlle Carpentier and Geneviève A. Mageau

Change-oriented feedback (COF) quality is predictive of between-athletes differences in their sport experience (Carpentier & Mageau, 2013). This study extends these findings by investigating how training-to-training variations in COF quality influence athletes’ training experience (within-athlete differences) while controlling for the impact of promotion-oriented feedback (POF). In total, 49 athletes completed a diary after 15 consecutive training sessions to assess COF and POF received during training, as well as situational outcomes. Multivariate multilevel analyses showed that, when controlling for covariates, COF quality during a specific training session is positively linked to athletes’ autonomous motivation, self-confidence and satisfaction of their psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness during the same session. In contrast, COF quantity is negatively linked to athletes’ need for competence. POF quality is a significant positive predictor of athletes’ self-confidence and needs for autonomy and competence. Contributions to the feedback and SDT literature, and for coaches’ training, are discussed.

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Hayley M. Ericksen, Brian Pietrosimone, Phillip A. Gribble, and Abbey C. Thomas

Feedback, designed to alter aberrant movement biomechanics, has proven to be an important component of injury prevention programs, which aim to decrease the risk of lower-extremity injury in sport. Interventions that incorporate feedback to teach optimal biomechanical movement patterns demonstrate

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Marcelo Eduardo de Souza Nunes, Umberto Cesar Correa, Marina Gusman Thomazi Xavier de Souza, Luciano Basso, Daniel Boari Coelho, and Suely Santos

Understanding how extrinsic feedback influences motor learning and performance has become a central concern in the field of motor learning in recent decades ( Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984 ; Singer, Murphey, & Tennant, 1993 ; Swinnen, 1996 ). Extrinsic feedback, also called augmented feedback

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Fatemeh Zahed and Max Berniker

reaches are robust to physical perturbations ( Berniker, Franklin, et al., 2014 ; Berniker, Mirzaei, & Kording, 2014 ; Kistemaker et al., 2010 ; Shadmehr & Mussa-Ivaldi, 1994 ) but not alterations of visual feedback ( Arce et al., 2009 ; Danziger & Mussa-Ivaldi, 2012 ; Farshchiansadegh et al., 2016

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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Ainara Jiménez-Alonso, Mar Cepero, Sergio Miras-Moreno, F. Javier Rojas, and Amador García-Ramos

velocity could be the possibility to provide feedback to athletes about their velocity performance ( Mann et al., 2015 ; Nevin, 2019 ). The delivery of velocity performance feedback during resistance training has demonstrated to be an effective strategy not only to acutely increase velocity performance

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Jeff E. Goodwin

% [ Ishikura, 2008 ]; 50% [ Winstein & Schmidt, 1990 , Experiments 2 and 3]). Results of these investigations have shown that receiving 100% relative frequency of KR in the acquisition phase produces a negative effect on learning when the feedback was removed on no-KR retention tests (see guidance hypothesis

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Alexander T. Latinjak, Marc Masó, and Nikos Comoutos

getting athletes actively involved in the motor learning process ( Cutton & Landin, 2007 ; Latinjak, Torregrosa, & Renom, 2011 ), especially when coach instruction and feedback are unavailable due to class size or time constraints. In this study, we define goal-directed self-talk as (a) an act of