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Alessandra Paiva de Castro, José Rubens Rebelatto, and Thaís Rabiatti Aurichio

Context:

Some questions remain regarding the anthropometric differences between the feet of young men and women, but the gap is much greater when dealing with older adults. No studies were found concerning these differences in an exclusively older adult population, which makes it difficult to manufacture shoes based on the specific anthropometric measurements of the older adult population and according to gender differences.

Objective:

To identify differences between the anthropometric foot variables of older men and women.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Participants:

154 older women (69.0 ± 6.8 y) and 131 older men (69.0 ± 6.5 y).

Main Outcome Measures:

The foot evaluations comprised the variables of width, perimeter, height, length, 1st and 5th metatarsophalangeal angles, the Arch Index (AI), and the Foot Posture Index (FPI). A data analysis was performed using t test and a post hoc power analysis.

Results:

Women showed significantly higher values for the width and perimeter of the toes, width of the metatarsal heads, and width of the heel and presented significantly lower values for the height of the dorsal foot after normalization of the data to foot length. The 1st and 5 th metatarsophalangeal angles were smaller in the men. There were no differences between men and women with respect to AI and FPI.

Conclusions:

Overall, the current study shows evidence of differences between some of the anthropometric foot variables of older men and women that must be taken into account for the manufacture of shoes for older adults.

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Daniel Crago, John B. Arnold, and Christopher Bishop

contributor to RE, and it is plausible to think that interventions that limit arch deformation during running may adversely affect RE and potentially decrease running performance. In runners with flat feet, foot orthoses are often prescribed to reduce painful symptoms in the lower extremities. 11 Despite

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Patrice R. Rougier, Thibaud Coquard, Thierry Paillard, Clément Ankaoua, Jeanne Dury, Corentin Barthod, and Dominic Perennou

) displacements. In healthy standing subjects, the amplitudes of the two CPs under both feet tend to increase with WBA, but with a larger increase under the unloaded leg ( Genthon & Rougier, 2005 ). The biomechanical effect of these two increases is that the resultant CP (CP Res ) necessarily increases along both

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Sahar Boozari, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, and Hassan Jafari

Context:

Flat foot is one of the lower extremity deformities that might change kinetic variables of gait. Fatigue is one of the factors that can alter the vertical ground-reaction force (GRF). The effect of a fatiguing condition on vertical GRF has not been documented in individuals with flat feet.

Objective:

To examine the fatigue effect on vertical GRF in individuals with flat feet compared with a normal group during barefoot walking.

Design:

Repeated-measure ANOVA for the effects of fatigue on individuals with flat feet and normal feet.

Setting:

Biomechanics laboratory.

Participants:

17 subjects with flat feet and 17 normal subjects (recruited according to their arch-height ratio).

Main Outcome Measures:

Three vertical GRF measures (F1, the first peak force; F2, minimum force; and F3, the second peak force) were extracted before and after a functional fatigue protocol.

Results:

No significant interaction between fatigue and group was observed for the 3 vertical GRF measures. For F2, fatigue and group effects were significant (P = .001 and P = .02, respectively). Furthermore, F2 was higher in the flat-feet group than in the normal group; F2 also increased after fatigue. For F3, only a significant fatigue effect was observed (P = .004). F3 decreased after fatigue in both groups.

Conclusions:

In the flat-feet group, a decrease in the variation of vertical GRF might be due to more flexible foot joints. After fatigue, muscles might lose their ability to control the foot joints and cause higher F2 in the flat-feet group.

Open access

Jacky Forsyth, Nicola Brown, Rachael Bullingham, and Claire-Marie Roberts

Feet Owing to COVID-19, which in many countries led to restrictions regarding travel and public gatherings, the planned 2020 face-to-face conference was replaced with a free virtual event, hosted by Staffordshire University, UK. With early research evidence suggesting that COVID-19 had heightened

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Marek Rejman and Bartosz Ochmann

The aim of this study was to develop a functional model of monofin swimming by assigning numerical forms to certain technique parameters. The precise determination of optimal foot displacement and monofin strain points toward a model aspect for increasing swimming speed. Eleven professional swimmers were filmed underwater. The kinematic data were then used as entry variable for an artificial neural network, which itself created the foundation for a model of monofin swimming technique. The resulting network response graphs indicate a division set of standard deviation values in which the examined angular parameters of foot and monofin displacement achieve optimal values in terms of gaining maximal swimming speed. During the upward movement, it is essential to limit dorsal foot flexion (–20°) from the parallel position toward the shin (180°). During the downward movement, plantar flexion should not exceed 180°. The optimal scope of the proximal part of the fin strain is 35° in the downward movement and (–)27° in the upward; the angles of attack of the distal part of the fn and its entire surface are limited to 37° in the downward movement and (–)26° in the upward. Optimization criteria allowed for movement modification to gain and maintain maximal velocity during both cycle phases and to limit cycle velocity decrease.

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Kimberly S. Peer and Karlene Dubois

Column-editor : Robert I. Moss

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Anca Gaston, Anita Grace Cramp, and Harry Prapavessis

Little is known about how women who exercise during pregnancy are perceived. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the positive exercise stereotype (i.e., the general tendency for exercisers to be evaluated more positively than nonexercisers) extends to pregnancy. Adult women (N = 202, mean age = 38.55 years, SD = 13.46) were randomly assigned to read a description of one of the following pregnant female targets: regular exerciser, active living, excessive exerciser, nonexerciser, or control. Participants then rated the target on 12 personality and 8 physical dimensions. MANOVAs revealed a significant main effect for both physical and personality attributes (p < .05). The regular exerciser and active living target received the most positive ratings on both physical and personality dimensions. Whereas the excessive exerciser received high ratings on most physical characteristics, this target was also perceived as meaner and sadder, and having fewer friends than all other targets.

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Martin Buchheit, Maxime Settembre, Karim Hader, and Derek McHugh

tennis, etc), which, given their nature, were not registered as exposure. Therefore, considering those nonexposure days as “days off-feet” is likely the most accurate description of those specific days—this terminology was consequently used throughout the manuscript. The 15 outfield players with the

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Shuaijie Wang, Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai, and Tanvi Bhatt

split slips and feet-forward slips according to the performance of the recovery limb. 13 , 15 Individuals taking a larger step are more likely to land the recovery foot closer to the slipping limb and experience a slip at its touchdown (TD), resulting in a feet-forward slip outcome, 14 whereas a