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Thomas D. Raedeke and Gary L. Stein

This study examined the relationship between felt arousal, thoughts/feelings, and ski performance based on recent arousal and affect conceptualizations. An eclectic integration of these perspectives suggests that to understand the arousal-performance relationship, researchers need to examine not only a felt arousal continuum (i.e., intensity or level ranging from low to high), but also a concomitant thoughts and feelings continuum (i.e., ranging from positive to negative). Recreational slalom ski racers completed a self-report measure examining felt arousal and thoughts/feelings prior to several ski runs. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between felt arousal level, thoughts/feelings, and subjective ski performance ratings, but not for actual ski times. In contrast to the inverted-U hypothesis for subjective performance ratings, high felt arousal is not associated with poor performance ratings if it is accompanied by positive thoughts and feelings.

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Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Graig M. Chow, Nicole T. Gabana, Robert C. Hickner, and Gershon Tenenbaum

addition to being correlated with several physiological measures (e.g., HR and VO 2 ). Felt Arousal Scale The Felt Arousal Scale ( Svebak & Murgatroyd, 1985 ; FAS) is a one-item 6-point scale that ranges from 1 ( low arousal ) to 6 ( high arousal ). The FAS has been used to assess the activation dimension

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Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister, and JohnEric W. Smith

felt arousal [FA]. It was hypothesized that CMR would increase RE training session volume in resistance-trained males. Methods Design The current investigation employed a randomized, counter-balanced, and double-blinded design, with the participants completing a total of five sessions. During Session 1

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Fiona Barnett


This study examined the self-efficacy and affective responses to an acute exercise bout in sedentary older and younger women to determine whether aging has an effect on affective states.


Twenty-five sedentary younger (mean age = 19.9 yrs) and 25 older (mean age = 55.7 yrs) women completed an acute bout of exercise. Affective responses were measured before, during, and immediately following exercise. Self-efficacy responses were measured before and immediately following exercise.


Positive engagement, revitalization, tranquility, Felt Arousal and Feeling Scale responses, and self-efficacy were all higher immediately following compared with before or during exercise for both groups of women. In addition, older women experienced higher overall positive engagement and lower physical exhaustion compared with younger women as well as higher tranquility and Feeling Scale responses immediately following exercise.


This investigation found that an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise produced more positive and fewer negative affective states in both younger and older women.

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Terri S. Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret, Phil Watson, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey


Caffeine can be beneficial during endurance and repeated-sprint exercise in able-bodied individuals performing leg or wholebody exercise. However, little evidence exists regarding its effects during upper-body exercise. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on sprint (SPR) and 4-min maximal-push (PUSH) performance in wheelchair sportsmen.


Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 male wheelchair rugby players (age 30.0 ± 7.7 y, body mass 69.6 ± 15.3 kg, training 11.1 ± 3.5 h/wk) completed 2 exercise trials, separated by 7–14 d, 70 min after ingestion of 4 mg/kg caffeine (CAF) or dextrose placebo (PLA). Each trial consisted of four 4-min PUSHes and 3 sets of 3 × 20-m SPRs, each separated by 4 min rest. Participants responded to the Felt Arousal (a measure of perceived arousal), Feeling (a measure of the affective dimension of pleasure/displeasure), and rating-of-perceived-exertion (RPE) scales. Salivary caffeine secretion rates were measured.


Average SPR times were faster during CAF than PLA during SPR 1 and SPR 2 (P = .037 and .016). There was no influence of supplementation on PUSHes 2–4 (P > .099); however, participants pushed significantly farther during PUSH 1 after CAF than after PLA (mean ± SD 677 ± 107 and 653 ± 118 m, P = .047). There was no influence of CAF on arousal or RPE scores (P > .132). Feeling scores improved over the course of the CAF trial only (P = .017) but did not significantly differ between trials (P > .167). Pre-warm-up (45 min postingestion) salivary CAF secretion rates were 1.05 ± 0.94 and 0.08 ± 0.05 μg/min for CAF and PLA, respectively.


Acute CAF supplementation can improve both 20-m-sprint performance and a 1-off bout of short-term endurance performance in wheelchair sportsmen.

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Psychologist , 1987–1992 Robin S. Vealey * 12 1994 8 8 4 4 331 331 348 348 10.1123/tsp.8.4.331 Felt Arousal, Thoughts/Feelings, and Ski Performance Thomas D. Raedeke * Gary L. Stein * 12 1994 8 8 4 4 360 360 375 375 10.1123/tsp.8.4.360 Toward the Combined Use of Nomothetic and Idiographic Methodologies

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret, and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

–20 differentiated RPE scale ( Borg, 1998 ; Pandolf et al., 1984 ) was used, and the athlete reported Felt Arousal scores. See Figure  1 for the testing protocol. Environmental conditions were represented as mean (SD): temperature, 19.4 (0.6) °C; humidity, 51% (5%). Figure 1 —Schematic of the 20-km TT protocol. TT

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Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado and Gershon Tenenbaum

 al., 2017 ). Instrument validity has been comprehensively demonstrated ( Hardy & Rejeski, 1989 ). Felt Arousal Scale The Felt Arousal Scale ( Svebak & Murgatroyd, 1985 ) is a single-item 6-point scale that ranges from 1 ( low arousal ) to 6 ( high arousal ). The Felt Arousal Scale has been used to assess

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Costas I. Karageorghis, Leighton Jones, Luke W. Howard, Rhys M. Thomas, Panayiotis Moulashis, and Sam J. Santich

, 1998 ), state attention by use of the Attention Scale ( Tammen, 1996 ), pleasure by use of the FS ( Hardy & Rejeski, 1989 ), and perceived activation by use of the Felt Arousal Scale (FAS;  Svebak & Murgatroyd, 1985 ) in the final 15 s of each 60-s high-intensity exercise bout and before commencement

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Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle, and Hassan M. Elsangedy

weight divided by height squared (kg/m 2 ). Body composition was determined using a whole-body DEXA scanner (DPX-IQ; Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). Instruction Protocol The participants were familiarized with the Borg RPE Scale, the Feeling Scale (FS), the Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), the Attention Scale, as