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Norikazu Hirose and Chikako Nakahori

Purpose:

To describe cross-sectional age differences in change-of-direction performance (CODp) in female football players and investigate the relationship between CODp and linear-sprint speed, muscle power, and body size.

Methods:

A sample of 135 well-trained female football players was divided into 8 age groups. Anthropometry (height, body mass, and lean body mass) and athletic performance (10-m sprint speed, 10-m × 5-CODp, and 5-step bounding distance) were compared to determine interage differences using ANOVA. Then, the participants were divided into 3 age groups: 12- to 14-y-olds, 15- to 17-y-olds, and ≥ 18 y-olds. Simple- and multiple-regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlation between CODp and the other measurement variables in each age group.

Results:

Age-related differences were found for CODp (F = 10.41, P < .01), sprint speed (F = 3.27, P < .01), and bounding distance (F = 4.20, P < .01). Post hoc analysis revealed that the CODp of 17-y-old players was faster than that of 16-y-old players (P < .01), with no interage differences in sprint speed and bounding distance. Sprint speed and bounding distance were weakly correlated with CODp in 15- to ≥18-y-old players, but only sprint speed was correlated with CODp in 12- to 14-y-old players.

Conclusions:

CODp improves from 16 to 17 y of age in female players. Linear-sprint speed, muscle power, and body size were weakly correlated with the age differences in CODp.

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

Football is one of the world’s most famous sports, played by over 30 million females worldwide. Fifty-four percent of all registered female football players are youth players ( 18 ). In Germany, football, following gymnastics, is the most common sport for girls aged 7–18 years, played by a total of

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Monika Grygorowicz, Martyna Michałowska, Paulina Jurga, Tomasz Piontek, Honorata Jakubowska and Tomasz Kotwicki

girls quitting football prematurely. Thus, this study was designed to analyze what are the main causes that make female players quit playing football. The aim of the study was to find the reasons for sports career termination in female football players in country-specific conditions. We hypothesize that

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Toni Liechty, Fleesha Willfong and Katherine Sveinson

The purpose of this study was to explore the embodied nature of empowerment among women who play tackle football. Data collection involved semistructured interviews with 15 female football players in Western Canada. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Three themes emerged from the data suggesting that playing football was empowering as women experienced: a) feelings of strength related to the physicality of the game; b) a sense of breaking boundaries as they participated despite challenges; and c) a sense of belonging to the team which led to positive outcomes such as increased confidence and selfacceptance. The findings of this study highlight the embodied nature of empowerment that comes through participation in sport and characteristics of contact team sport that can facilitate empowerment for women.

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Dana Munk, Ramona Cox, Martha E. Ewing and Peggy McCann

There has been quite a surge of women’s professional football teams in the United States; however, football is rarely offered for girls at the youth sport, middle school, high school, or intercollegiate levels. While this lack of participation can be easily attributed to the contact sport exemption clause in Title IX, researchers have shown that litigation has changed the course for women by legally opening doors for opportunities in tackle football. Today, it is more likely the lack of opportunities for females in traditional male sports is because of stereotypical beliefs linked to their gender. Using qualitative methodology, researchers in this study explored stereotypical, discrepant, societal messages encountered by current professional female football players. Findings suggested societal reactions were linked to stereotypical beliefs about women in sports and included a lack of social support, discriminatory messages, and skepticism over girl’s ability to play contact sports. Implications for further study also emerged.

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Daniel Tan, Brian Dawson and Peter Peeling

Purpose:

This study aimed to quantify the hemolytic responses of elite female football (soccer) players during a typical weekly training session.

Methods:

Ten elite female football players (7 field players [FPs] and 3 goalkeepers [GKs]) were recruited from the Australian National Women’s Premier League and asked to provide a venous blood sample 30 min before and at the immediate conclusion of a typical weekly training session. During this training session, the players’ movement patterns were monitored via a 5-Hz global positioning system. The blood samples collected during the training session were analyzed for iron status via serum ferritin (SF) analysis, and the hemolytic response to training, via serum free hemoglobin (Hb) and haptoglobin (Hp) measurement.

Results:

50% of the participants screened were found to have a compromised iron stores (SF <35 μg/L). Furthermore, the posttraining serum free Hb levels were significantly elevated (P = .011), and the serum Hp levels were significantly decreased (P = .005), with no significant differences recorded between the FPs and GKs. However, the overall distance covered and the movement speed were significantly greater in the FPs.

Conclusions:

The increases in free Hb and decreases in Hp levels provide evidence that a typical team-sport training session may result in significant hemolysis. This hemolysis may primarily be a result of running-based movements in FPs and/or the plyometric movements in GKs, such as diving and tackling.

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Allan Munro, Lee Herrington and Paul Comfort

Context:

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) are a significant problem in female athletes. A number of screening tasks have been used in the literature to identify those at greatest risk of injury. To date, no study has examined the relationship in 2-dimensional (2D) knee valgus between common screening tasks to determine whether individuals exhibit similar movement patterns across tasks.

Objective:

To establish whether frontal-plane projection angle (FPPA) during the single-leg squat (SLS), single-leg land (SLL), and drop jump (DJ) are related.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

52 national-league female football players and 36 national-league female basketball players.

Main Outcome Measures:

2D FPPA during the SLS, SLL, and DJ screening tasks.

Results:

Significant correlations were found between tasks. FPPA in the SLS was significantly correlated with SLL (r = .52) and DJ (r = .30), whereas FPPA in the SLL was also significantly correlated to DJ (r = .33). FPPA was significantly greater in the SLS than in the SLL (P < .001) and DJ (P < .001) and in the SLL than in the DJ (P < .001).

Conclusion:

The results showed that 2D FPPA is correlated across the SLS, SLL, and DJ tasks. However, significantly greater FPPA values in the unilateral tasks suggest that the DJ may not identify risk of injury in sports where primary injury mechanisms are during unilateral loading tasks. Therefore, it is recommended that both unilateral and bilateral tasks be included when screening for ACL and PFJ injury risk.

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Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro González-Agüero, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez and José A. Casajús

most used anthropometric equation in male and female adolescent football players, (b) to develop a specific equation for male and female football players, and (c) to cross-validate this new equation with another sample of the same population. Methods Participants Ten clubs of Aragon (Spain

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Jonathan M. Williams, Michael Gara and Carol Clark

reduces injury risk in Canadian youth female football players: a cluster randomised trial . Br J Sports Med . 2013 ; 47 ( 12 ): 794 – 802 . PubMed ID: 23559666 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091886 23559666 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091886 3. Mancini M , Salarian A , Carlson-Kuhta P , et al . ISway: a

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Marissa L. Mason, Marissa N. Clemons, Kaylyn B. LaBarre, Nicole R. Szymczak and Nicole J. Chimera

, Jones G . Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency and common technique flaws of the tuck jump assessment in elite female football players . Sci Med Football . 2017 ; 1 ( 2 ): 139 – 144 . doi: 10.1080/24733938.2017.1282165 11. Read P , Oliver JL , De Ste Croix MBA , Myer GD , Lloyd