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Tom Webb, Paul Gorczynski, Shakiba Oftadeh-Moghadam, and Laura Grubb

of female referees ( Gorczynski & Webb, 2020 ; Webb, 2020b ), despite the rapid growth of the female game in England and other countries around the world and the accompanied growth in number of female players and referees ( Clarkson et al., 2020 ). Given their absence from research, female referees

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Christopher F. Baldwin and Roger Vallance

Five women rugby union referees who officiated in the New South Wales (NSW) suburban rugby union premiership were interviewed about their experiences refereeing men. After a comprehensive analysis of the interview transcripts, four themes emerged around barriers and challenges to women’s participation in officiating, these themes are: 1) Barriers experienced by women rugby union referees; 2) Success in refereeing male rugby union players; 3) Challenges of women participating in refereeing rugby union; 4) Ways to bring about change. The findings imply that there is discrimination and marginalization present in women’s sports officiating at male games which is in line with the literature in women’s sports coaching. The findings also suggest that women have to be superior and elite athletes with a history of success to be appointed to the best male rugby union matches. Support both on and off the field is crucial to the development and success of female referees.

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Kamiel Reid and Christine Dallaire

Because there are so few of us. I’ve said this before to other people but I think I’m a novelty to Old Timers, because there’s so few female referees so I’m experiencing those games differently than other referees because they’re going to treat me differently. (Sarah, Age: 33, Level of

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Julie Minikel-Lacocque

adult advocates pushed back, the perpetrators denied once again. Importantly, the perpetrators here were not only men: This exceptionally strong girls’ team with four short-haired, skilled players, drew the ire of many referees and opposing coaches, managers, and parents—including mothers, female