The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among elite women soccer players. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity, and ferritin were determined in 28 female soccer players called up for the national team. Of the investigated female soccer players, 57% had iron deficiency and 29% iron deficiency anemia 6 months before the FIFA Women’s World Cup. It is concluded that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is common in female soccer players at the top international level. Some might suffer from relative anemia and measurement of hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to reveal relative anemia. Regular monitoring of hemoglobin concentration and iron status is necessary to institute iron supplementation when indicated.
Göran Landahl, Peter Adolfsson, Mats Börjesson, Clas Mannheimer, and Stig Rödjer
Katherine Sveinson and Larena Hoeber
Female sport fan research has been gaining momentum in recent years (e.g., Farrell, Fink, & Fields, 2011; Osborne & Coombs, 2013; Pope, 2011, 2013; Sveinson & Hoeber, 2015). Much of this research focuses on the marginalization that these sport fans experience (e.g., Crawford & Gosling, 2004; Jones, 2008; Sherlock & Elsden, 2000), with little attention given to experiences of empowerment. Therefore, this study sought to explore if female sport fans’ experiences involve marginalization, empowerment, or both and what contributes to these experiences. Multiple individual interviews were conducted with seven highly identified, displaced female sport fans. The data were analyzed through a three-step process involving open, axial, and selective coding (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The findings demonstrated that the participants experience marginalization based on assumptions that women are inauthentic sport fans. They also felt empowered when they were able to demonstrate legitimacy and authenticity in their fanship.
Megan Elizabeth Evelyn Mormile, Jody L. Langdon, and Tamerah Nicole Hunt
symptoms of concussion is a common occurrence in athletics, presumably due to the “toughness” mantra surrounding sport participation. 6 Though rates of underreporting have shown to fluctuate by gender, this discrepancy continues to decrease with increased female sport participation. 6 , 7 Lack of overall
Lieselot Decroix, Robert P. Lamberts, and Romain Meeusen
determine if the LSCT can reflect a state of FO in elite professional female cyclists during a training camp and the following recovery days. Materials and Methods Subjects and Study Design Eight professional female cyclists from Lotto-Soudal ladies team participated in the study. Two cyclists could not
Wesley O’Brien, Tara Coppinger, Irene Hogan, Sarahjane Belton, Marie H. Murphy, Cormac Powell, and Catherine Woods
has developed in PA over a 15-year time frame (2001 and 2016). 4 Adolescent females consistently report lower levels of PA, 4 , 5 and this decline increases further with age. 6 , 7 Most recent nationally representative surveillance data of youth sport and PA from the Children’s Sport Participation
Göran Kenttä, Marte Bentzen, Kristen Dieffenbach, and Peter Olusoga
) examined the strengths and unique skills associated with female leadership and their value within the modern workplace. Despite this recognition, leadership positions across professions are still predominately male, with just under 5% of the Fortune 500 CEOs and only 22% of their boards ( Pew Research
Zoe A. Black and Paul McCarthy
). Woolway and Harwood ( 2020 ) recently found that a consultant of the same gender, race, and age of the client, with a high athletic background and sport-specific knowledge and interpersonal skills, was the most preferred. Even though gender matching preferences exist, female sport psychology consultants
Tim Newans, Phillip Bellinger, Christopher Drovandi, Simon Buxton, and Clare Minahan
scientists aware of the utility of mixed models when analyzing longitudinal data sets. To illustrate this, we described and compared the movement patterns of female rugby league athletes across 3 levels of competition. We hypothesized that match intensity, as determined by the mean speed, would be higher in
Edith Filaire, Alain Massart, Jiewen Hua, and Christine Le Scanff
The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations.
Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days’ rest.
Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p > .05) in the DE group as compared with the group without DE. Although in both groups, sAA concentrations presented a decrease in the first 30 min after awakening, and then progressively rose toward the afternoon, DE players exhibited reduced concentrations of the sAA with a decrease in its overall day secretion. Moreover, they showed a higher overall day secretion of salivary cortisol and a higher Cortisol Awakening Response.
These results suggest that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is impaired whereas the cortisol awakening response is enhanced. The long-term consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.
Anika Frühauf, Christiane Pahlke, and Martin Kopp
Although female sport participation numbers have largely increased within the last decades, men are still more active than women in 94% of the countries (where data are available), including high-income countries ( Brown et al., 2016 ). Within those years where women became more visible in sports