The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among elite women soccer players. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity, and ferritin were determined in 28 female soccer players called up for the national team. Of the investigated female soccer players, 57% had iron deficiency and 29% iron deficiency anemia 6 months before the FIFA Women’s World Cup. It is concluded that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is common in female soccer players at the top international level. Some might suffer from relative anemia and measurement of hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to reveal relative anemia. Regular monitoring of hemoglobin concentration and iron status is necessary to institute iron supplementation when indicated.
Göran Landahl, Peter Adolfsson, Mats Börjesson, Clas Mannheimer and Stig Rödjer
Katherine Sveinson and Larena Hoeber
Female sport fan research has been gaining momentum in recent years (e.g., Farrell, Fink, & Fields, 2011; Osborne & Coombs, 2013; Pope, 2011, 2013; Sveinson & Hoeber, 2015). Much of this research focuses on the marginalization that these sport fans experience (e.g., Crawford & Gosling, 2004; Jones, 2008; Sherlock & Elsden, 2000), with little attention given to experiences of empowerment. Therefore, this study sought to explore if female sport fans’ experiences involve marginalization, empowerment, or both and what contributes to these experiences. Multiple individual interviews were conducted with seven highly identified, displaced female sport fans. The data were analyzed through a three-step process involving open, axial, and selective coding (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The findings demonstrated that the participants experience marginalization based on assumptions that women are inauthentic sport fans. They also felt empowered when they were able to demonstrate legitimacy and authenticity in their fanship.
Megan Elizabeth Evelyn Mormile, Jody L. Langdon and Tamerah Nicole Hunt
symptoms of concussion is a common occurrence in athletics, presumably due to the “toughness” mantra surrounding sport participation. 6 Though rates of underreporting have shown to fluctuate by gender, this discrepancy continues to decrease with increased female sport participation. 6 , 7 Lack of overall
Edith Filaire, Alain Massart, Jiewen Hua and Christine Le Scanff
The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations.
Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days’ rest.
Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p > .05) in the DE group as compared with the group without DE. Although in both groups, sAA concentrations presented a decrease in the first 30 min after awakening, and then progressively rose toward the afternoon, DE players exhibited reduced concentrations of the sAA with a decrease in its overall day secretion. Moreover, they showed a higher overall day secretion of salivary cortisol and a higher Cortisol Awakening Response.
These results suggest that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is impaired whereas the cortisol awakening response is enhanced. The long-term consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.
Lieselot Decroix, Robert P. Lamberts and Romain Meeusen
determine if the LSCT can reflect a state of FO in elite professional female cyclists during a training camp and the following recovery days. Materials and Methods Subjects and Study Design Eight professional female cyclists from Lotto-Soudal ladies team participated in the study. Two cyclists could not
Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway
state and replacing lost fluids on cessation of exercise is recommended; however, most of the research on this field has been done in males due to the uncertainty of including females in relation to menstrual cycle phase effects on fluid balance. Many factors affect fluid balance and rehydration, such
Mia A. Schaumberg, Lynne M. Emmerton, David G. Jenkins, Nicola W. Burton, Xanne A.K. Janse de Jonge and Tina L. Skinner
competitive sport. The delay of menstrual bleeding may be attractive for reasons other than symptom control. For example, over 60% of female defense-force personnel reported that menstrual or premenstrual symptoms affected their ability to perform physical tasks, 6 and approximately half of deployed female
Zoë A. Poucher, Katherine A. Tamminen and Gretchen Kerr
, this study adopted a qualitative approach from a critical realist perspective to explore the experiences of providing and receiving support between female Olympians and their main support providers surrounding the Rio Olympic Games. Social support is a multidimensional construct ( Cobb, 1976 ; Cutrona
Benjamin W. Stroube, Gregory D. Myer, Jensen L. Brent, Kevin R. Ford, Robert S. Heidt Jr. and Timothy E. Hewett
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are prevalent in female athletes. Specific factors have possible links to increasing a female athlete’s chances of suffering an ACL injury. However, it is unclear if augmented feedback may be able to decrease possible risk factors.
To compare the effects of task-specific feedback on a repeated tuck-jump maneuver.
Double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Sports-medicine biodynamics center.
37 female subjects (14.7 ± 1.5 y, 160.9 ± 6.8 cm, 54.5 ± 7.2 kg).
All athletes received standard off-season training consisting of strength training, plyometrics, and conditioning. They were also videotaped during each session while running on a treadmill at a standardized speed (8 miles/h) and while performing a repeated tuck-jump maneuver for 10 s. The augmented feedback group (AF) received feedback on deficiencies present in a 10-s tuck jump, while the control group (CTRL) received feedback on 10-s treadmill running.
Main Outcome Measures:
Outcome measurements of tuck-jump deficits were scored by a blinded rater to determine the effects of group (CTRL vs AF) and time (pre- vs posttesting) on changes in measured deficits.
A significant interaction of time by group was noted with the task-specific feedback training (P = .03). The AF group reduced deficits measured during the tuck-jump assessment by 23.6%, while the CTRL training reduced deficits by 10.6%.
The results of the current study indicate that task-specific feedback is effective for reducing biomechanical risk factors associated with ACL injury. The data also indicate that specific components of the tuck-jump assessment are potentially more modifiable than others.
Alison Alcock, Wendy Gilleard, Nick A.T. Brown, John Baker and Adam Hunter
Initial ball flight characteristics of curve and instep kicks were investigated. Fifteen international female footballers performed curve and instep kicks from a distance of 20 m from goal and at a 1 m2 target. Seventeen Vicon cameras tracked three-dimensional coordinates of four reflective markers adhered to the ball. Ball flight characteristics were quantified, and the coordinates of the ball relative to the target center were recorded. The lateral launch angle and the angle of the spin axis relative to the horizontal best predicted the horizontal placement of the ball relative to the target. The vertical launch angle, antero-posterior velocity and amount of backspin best predicted the vertical coordinate. Regression models demonstrated how carefully controlled the flight characteristics must be with launch angles constrained within 3° to hit the target. Curve kicks were characterized by significantly greater lateral and vertical launch angles, increased sidespin and spin about the antero-posterior axis, and a more vertical spin axis. This information is beneficial for coaches in training players to achieve the characteristics required to score a goal and avoid a defensive wall. For example, if players consistently kick above or below the target, these findings identify the variables that will help rectify that error.