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Fractures, Glycemic Control, and Bone Mineral Density in Females With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Critically Appraised Topic

Antoinette Lee, Nancy A. Uriegas, Morgan G. Adams, and Amy F. Hand

following clinical observations where a female with T1-DM sustained bone injuries, whereas their male counterpart, with similar demographics, had not. These scenarios brought into question the effect of T1-DM on bone health and injury risk in physically active females. Bone health is a broad topic comprised

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A Qualitative Investigation of Young Female Dancers’ Use of Imagery

Irene Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler, and Todd Loughead

qualitative study examining young female dancers’ imagery use from various styles is warranted. The purpose of the current study was to qualitatively investigate the 4 Ws of imagery use (where, when, what, and why) with young female dancers 7–14 years of age. This age range was chosen as it is suggested that

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Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Recovery From Eccentric Exercise Induced Muscle Damage in Females

Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett, and Matthew Barnes

This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately postexercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg predamage, 36 hr post, and 60 hr post damage. Venous blood creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness ratings were taken before damage and once per day to 60 hr post damage. Significant differences were observed between the exercised and control leg for maximal concentric, and eccentric torque and isometric tension (p < .05). A near significant Treatment × Time interaction was observed for isometric tension (p = .077), but not for concentric or eccentric torque. No main effects of treatment (alcohol) or interactions with Time × Leg or Leg × Treatment were observed. Perceived muscle soreness during box stepping and squatting showed significant time effects (p < .05), and CK activity did not significantly change. Our results indicate that the consumption of 0.88g ethanol/kg body weight following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage does not affect recovery in the days following damage in females.

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Physiologic, Metabolic, and Nutritional Attributes of Collegiate Synchronized Swimmers

Paula B. Costa, Scott R. Richmond, Charles R. Smith, Brad Currier, Richard A. Stecker, Brad T. Gieske, Kimi Kemp, Kyle E. Witherbee, and Chad M. Kerksick

characteristics of competitive, collegiate synchronized swimmers. Methods Design This was an observational study involving 21 female collegiate synchronized swimmers (mean [SD]: age = 20.4 [1.6] y; height = 168.0 [4.9] cm; weight = 64.4 [8.7] kg). Following an 8-hour fast, participants arrived at the research

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Female Athlete Representation and Dietary Control Methods Among Studies Assessing Chronic Carbohydrate Approaches to Support Training

Megan A. Kuikman, Alannah K.A. McKay, Ella S. Smith, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Rachel Harris, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Trent Stellingwerff, and Louise M. Burke

increasing awareness that research across various areas of sports science and medicine is predominantly conducted in male populations ( Cowley et al., 2021 ; Smith et al., 2022c ). This creates uncertainty around the application of the results to female athletes due to sex-based physiological, morphological

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Does Gender Affect Rectal Temperature Cooling Rates? A Critically Appraised Topic

Kayla E. Boehm and Kevin C. Miller

Focused Clinical Question Do cold-water immersion (CWI) rectal temperature ( T rec ) cooling rates differ between hyperthermic males and females? Summary of Search, “Best Evidence” Appraised, and Key Findings • We searched for studies that used CWI (water temperature <20°C), the gold standard

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Methodology Review: A Protocol to Audit the Representation of Female Athletes in Sports Science and Sports Medicine Research

Ella S. Smith, Alannah K.A. McKay, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Rachel Harris, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Trent Stellingwerff, and Louise M. Burke

The representation of women in high-performance sport has increased in recent decades. Indeed, the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games was the first to achieve near parity in medal opportunities for women’s and men’s events, with female representation rate at 49% of total competitors, an increase from 45% in

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Changes in Physical Activity, Sleep, Mental Health, and Social Media Use During COVID-19 Lockdown Among Adolescent Girls: A Mixed-Methods Study

S. Maria O’Kane, Ian M. Lahart, Alison M. Gallagher, Angela Carlin, Maria Faulkner, Russell Jago, and Marie H. Murphy

is well established, 7 , 8 it is not yet known how lockdown will have affected the PA levels of adolescents and, in particular, adolescent girls. It is recognized that adolescent females typically have lower levels of PA than their male counterparts, 9 – 11 and, prior to the pandemic, only 7.2% of

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Beliefs about Gender Appropriateness, Ability, and Competence in Physical Activity

Melinda A. Solmon, Amelia M. Lee, Donald Belcher, Louis Harrison Jr., and Lori Wells

Beliefs about gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability have been identified as powerful influences on beliefs about competence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of those two factors on competence beliefs in physical activity. Participants completed a survey about the sport of hockey, watched a video of a specific hockey skill, and then responded to questions about the skill. Males expressed more confidence in their ability to learn hockey than females, but females who perceived the activity to be gender neutral were more confident in their ability to learn hockey than females who believed the activity was predominantly for males. Participants’ explanations of their beliefs about gender appropriateness and confidence shed light on how competence beliefs are affected by perceptions of gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability.

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Component Inertia Modeling of Segmental Wobbling and Rigid Masses

Marianne J.R. Gittoes and David G. Kerwin

A modification to an existing mathematical model is described, which permits the determination of subject-specific inertia parameters for wobbling and rigid masses of female body segments. The model comprises segment-specific soft tissue, bone, and lung components. A total of 59 geometric solids (40 soft tissue, 17 bone, 2 lung) were used to represent the body components. Ninety-five anthropometric measurements were collected from 7 female participants and were used to develop and evaluate the model. The success of the model is evaluated using predicted mass and mass distribution. The overall absolute accuracy in predicted whole body mass was better than 3.0%, with a maximum error of 4.9%. The appropriateness of the cadaver-based density values used in the model is addressed and the accuracy of the component inertia model in relation to uniform density models is discussed. The model offers a novel approach for determining component inertia parameters, which have been used successfully in a wobbling mass model to produce realistic kinetic analyses of drop-landings.