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Irene Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler and Todd Loughead

qualitative study examining young female dancers’ imagery use from various styles is warranted. The purpose of the current study was to qualitatively investigate the 4 Ws of imagery use (where, when, what, and why) with young female dancers 7–14 years of age. This age range was chosen as it is suggested that

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Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett and Matthew Barnes

This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately postexercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg predamage, 36 hr post, and 60 hr post damage. Venous blood creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness ratings were taken before damage and once per day to 60 hr post damage. Significant differences were observed between the exercised and control leg for maximal concentric, and eccentric torque and isometric tension (p < .05). A near significant Treatment × Time interaction was observed for isometric tension (p = .077), but not for concentric or eccentric torque. No main effects of treatment (alcohol) or interactions with Time × Leg or Leg × Treatment were observed. Perceived muscle soreness during box stepping and squatting showed significant time effects (p < .05), and CK activity did not significantly change. Our results indicate that the consumption of 0.88g ethanol/kg body weight following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage does not affect recovery in the days following damage in females.

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Paula B. Costa, Scott R. Richmond, Charles R. Smith, Brad Currier, Richard A. Stecker, Brad T. Gieske, Kimi Kemp, Kyle E. Witherbee and Chad M. Kerksick

characteristics of competitive, collegiate synchronized swimmers. Methods Design This was an observational study involving 21 female collegiate synchronized swimmers (mean [SD]: age = 20.4 [1.6] y; height = 168.0 [4.9] cm; weight = 64.4 [8.7] kg). Following an 8-hour fast, participants arrived at the research

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Kayla E. Boehm and Kevin C. Miller

Focused Clinical Question Do cold-water immersion (CWI) rectal temperature ( T rec ) cooling rates differ between hyperthermic males and females? Summary of Search, “Best Evidence” Appraised, and Key Findings • We searched for studies that used CWI (water temperature <20°C), the gold standard

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Melinda A. Solmon, Amelia M. Lee, Donald Belcher, Louis Harrison Jr. and Lori Wells

Beliefs about gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability have been identified as powerful influences on beliefs about competence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of those two factors on competence beliefs in physical activity. Participants completed a survey about the sport of hockey, watched a video of a specific hockey skill, and then responded to questions about the skill. Males expressed more confidence in their ability to learn hockey than females, but females who perceived the activity to be gender neutral were more confident in their ability to learn hockey than females who believed the activity was predominantly for males. Participants’ explanations of their beliefs about gender appropriateness and confidence shed light on how competence beliefs are affected by perceptions of gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability.

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Marianne J.R. Gittoes and David G. Kerwin

A modification to an existing mathematical model is described, which permits the determination of subject-specific inertia parameters for wobbling and rigid masses of female body segments. The model comprises segment-specific soft tissue, bone, and lung components. A total of 59 geometric solids (40 soft tissue, 17 bone, 2 lung) were used to represent the body components. Ninety-five anthropometric measurements were collected from 7 female participants and were used to develop and evaluate the model. The success of the model is evaluated using predicted mass and mass distribution. The overall absolute accuracy in predicted whole body mass was better than 3.0%, with a maximum error of 4.9%. The appropriateness of the cadaver-based density values used in the model is addressed and the accuracy of the component inertia model in relation to uniform density models is discussed. The model offers a novel approach for determining component inertia parameters, which have been used successfully in a wobbling mass model to produce realistic kinetic analyses of drop-landings.

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Anthony C. Hackney, Mary Ann McCracken-Compton and Barbara Ainsworth

This study examined substrate metabolism responses of eumenorrheic women to different intensities of submaximai exercise at the midfollicular (MF) and the midluteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine women performed a 30-min treadmill run in which the exercise intensity was made more difficult every 10 min (35%, 60%, and 75%). Carbohydrate (CHO) utilization and oxidation rates for the 35% and 60% intensities during the ML session were significantly lower than during the comparable intensities in the MF. Conversely, lipid utilization and oxidation were significantly greater during the 35% and 60% ML session than in the MF session. At 75%, however, the ML and MF CHO-lipid utilization and oxidation rates were not significantly different from one another. Thus, the phase of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women does influence metabolic substrate usage during low- to moderate-intensity submaximai exercise, probably due to changes in the endogenous levels of the female sex hormones.

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Henry N. Williford, Michele Scharff Olson, Robert E. Keith, Jeffrey M. Barksdale, Daniel L. Blessing, Nai-Zhen Wang and Pete Preston

This investigation evaluated the iron and nutritional status of 12 highly trained aerobic dance instructors who did not take iron supplements (ANS) and 8 who did (AS). A control group (C) consisted of 10 age matched controls. The aerobic instructors had exercised for approximately 3.8 days/wk, 56 min/session for the past 7 yrs. There were no significant differences among groups for energy intake, carbohydrate, protein, fat, nonheme iron, heme iron, or total iron intake (excluding supplemental iron). But both exercise groups had lower ferritin values than the control group. There was also a significant difference in mean cell volume (MCV), with both exercise groups having greater values than the control group. There were no differences among groups for serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, hematocrit, or hemoglobin. One in three aerobic dance instructors had serum ferritin values below 12 μg · L−1. Results indicate that women exercise leaders have iron profiles that are similar to other groups of female athletes. The increased MCV values suggest runners' macrocytosis or an exercise induced macrocytosis.

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Zoë A. Poucher, Katherine A. Tamminen and Gretchen Kerr

, this study adopted a qualitative approach from a critical realist perspective to explore the experiences of providing and receiving support between female Olympians and their main support providers surrounding the Rio Olympic Games. Social support is a multidimensional construct ( Cobb, 1976 ; Cutrona

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Herbert Wagner, Patrick Fuchs, Andrea Fusco, Philip Fuchs, Jeffrey W. Bell and Serge P. von Duvillard

Modern (indoor) team handball has been an Olympic team sport since 1972 for men and since 1976 for women. Team handball has grown to become a sport played worldwide. Especially in Europe, team handball is very popular and well merchandised for male and female teams by the European Handball