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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

3-week cycles described earlier in the TPSR program in order to supervise the development and implementation of the DI program. The goal was to compare a high-quality TPSR program and a high-quality DI program, both of them developmentally appropriate. Fidelity of Implementation Hastie and Casey

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Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park and Martin Block

a detailed description of Allport’s ( 1954 ) contact theory, including the necessary components of contact theory. This study used a newly created fidelity of implementation instrument (fidelity criteria) to measure a single construct (contact theory) with the four criteria (or indicators), seeking

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Okseon Lee and Euichang Choi

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a professional development (PD) program on teachers’ implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, and to identify the characteristics of PD that influence teaching practice. The participants were six elementary school teachers and 12 students, and the data were collected from interviews with the teachers and students, observations, and teachers’ reflective journal entries. The findings revealed that PD enhanced the fidelity of implementation in terms of improving structural adherence, facilitating coherent instructional delivery, and making the students more active and responsible. The PD also helped the teachers to adapt the model by developing cultural differentiation strategies, modifying existing components, and extending the implementation of the TPSR through connection with other subjects or activities. The teachers found that the PD facilitated their implementation of TPSR by giving them common goals, empowering them as creators of knowledge, and providing a continuous and authentic learning experience.

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Ashley Casey, Victoria A. Goodyear and Ben P. Dyson

A wealth of school-based interventions report on students’ positive responses to the use of models-based practice in physical education. However, research that examines the effectiveness of models-based practice rarely reports on the fidelity of implementation i.e., when all of the characteristics of a model are implemented. The purpose of this study was to explore model fidelity in the use of the Cooperative Learning model. Action research and systematic observation (using the Cooperative Learning Validation Tool which acknowledged the observation of key characteristics of the model) were used to confirm model fidelity. Consequently, the themes which emerged from the data analysis of could be directly linked to the authentic use of Cooperative Learning context. The paper concludes by arguing that when reporting on findings from empirical research on the use of Cooperative Learning we need to adopt a more robust approach in determining—through rigor and quality of research—the authenticity of implementation.

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Michalis Stylianou, Tiffany Kloeppel, Pamela Kulinna and Han van der Mars

Background:

This study was informed by the bodies of literature emphasizing the role of physical education in promoting physical activity (PA) and addressing teacher fidelity to curricular models.

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to compare student PA levels, lesson context, and teacher PA promotion behavior among classes where teachers were using the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model with low, moderate, and high fidelity.

Methods:

Participants were 20 physical education teachers, and their 4th and 5th grade students. Each teacher was observed teaching three times during the study. Fidelity data were collected using a validated observation instrument. PA, lesson context, and teacher behavior data were collected using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). Data analysis included descriptive statistics and group difference tests.

Results:

Significant differences among the three fidelity groups were identified in several items of the observation instrument. No significant moderate-to-vigorous PA or lesson context differences were found among the three groups. Students taught by teachers in the high fidelity group spent a significantly higher proportion of lesson time (7.5%) in vigorous PA than students taught by teachers in the low fidelity group. Teachers in the moderate and high fidelity groups spent a significantly higher proportion of lesson time promoting in-class PA than teachers in the low fidelity group.

Discussion:

Fidelity of implementation to the DPE model had little impact on student PA. The findings of this study can inform future researchers about the methodological importance of examining teacher fidelity to curricular models and associated outcomes.

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Anna E. Chalkley, Ash C. Routen, Jo P. Harris, Lorraine A. Cale, Trish Gorely and Lauren B. Sherar

Introduction: School-based running programs that promote daily (or regular) walking/jogging/running are an emerging public health initiative. However, evaluation of these programs has predominantly used quantitative measures that limit understanding and explanations of contextual influences on pupil participation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to qualitatively explore pupils’ experiences of participating in a primary-school-based running program (Marathon Kids) to provide relevant insights and inform program developments. Methods: Nine semistructured focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of 50 pupils (26 girls and 24 boys) between 6 and 10 years of age from 5 primary schools in England. All schools had delivered the running program for 5–9 months during the 2015–16 academic year. Transcripts were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Results: Pupils identified a range of organizational, interpersonal, and intrapersonal factors that they believed influenced their participation in the program. Six themes were identified as being important to pupils’ experiences: Marathon Kids as an enabling program, pupils’ autonomy to participate, peer influence on participation (e.g., development of social cohesion), teacher influence on delivery (e.g., fidelity of implementation), logistics and suitability of the school environment, and appropriateness of program resources. Conclusions: School-based running programs can offer an enjoyable physical activity experience for children; however, it is important to understand how current delivery approaches influence pupils’ participation. Aspects that were believed to facilitate enjoyment included pupil autonomy to participate, perceived benefits of participation (including psychosocial outcomes), and a supportive school environment. Further research is required to identify the type and level of support required by schools to sustain pupil participation in running programs so that their perceived value is maintained.

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Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li and Matthew Curtner-Smith

treatment description above were followed. All studies reported 100% compliance with the checklist. The treatment integrity was aided by standardization through the use of the same materials, and videos of correct and incorrect performances for training. In addition, fidelity of implementation of the tasks

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Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig and Paul M. Wright

, Jacobs, & Wright, 2016 ; Jacobs & Wright, 2014 ; Wright, 2009 ). To examine the feasibility of such an idea, the current study describes a school-based TPSR program, assesses the fidelity of implementation, and analyzes the relationship between teacher implementation and student behavior in physical

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Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek

three Simple Interactions workshops occurred after the sixth, 12th, and 18th TLP meetings . To ensure fidelity of implementation of the workshops, the first author (M.A. Hemphill) conducted a site visit to a research lab and to a youth center to gain insights into the best practices for research and

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Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang

environmental condition of their teaching, including equipment, class sizes, facilities, and instructional time and rated the ease-of-use level for the unit. Teachers’ fidelity of implementation was documented by trained observers using a nonparticipatory observation instrument specifically designed and