Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.
Robert J. Aughey
James J. Hoffmann Jr, Jacob P. Reed, Keith Leiting, Chieh-Ying Chiang and Michael H. Stone
Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.
Alon Eliakim, Dan M. Cooper and Dan Nemet
The present study compares previous reports on the effect of “real-life” typical field individual (ie, cross-country running and wrestling—representing combat versus noncombat sports) and team sports (ie, volleyball and water polo—representing water and land team sports) training on GH and IGF-1, the main growth factors of the GH→IGF axis, in male and female late pubertal athletes. Cross-country running practice and volleyball practice in both males and females were associated with significant increases of circulating GH levels, while none of the practices led to a significant increase in IGF-I levels. The magnitude (percent change) of the GH response to the different practices was determined mainly by preexercise GH levels. There was no difference in the training-associated GH response between individual and team sports practices. The GH response to the different typical practices was not influenced by the practice-associated lactate change. Further studies are needed to better understand the effect of real-life typical training in prepubertal and adolescent athletes and their role in exercise adaptations.
Stephen J. Kelly, Aron J. Murphy, Mark L. Watsford, Damien Austin and Michael Rennie
To investigate the validity and reliability of accelerometry of the SPI-ProX II dual data logger (GPSports, Canberra, Australia).
Controlled laboratory assessments determined the accuracy and reproducibility of raw accelerometer data. Intra- and interdevice reliability assessed the ability of the SPI-ProX II accelerometers to repeatedly measure peak gravitational accelerations (g) during impact-based testing. Static and dynamic validity testing assessed the accuracy of SPI-ProX II accelerometers against a criterion-referenced accelerometer. Dynamic validity was assessed over a range of frequencies from 5 to 15 Hz.
Intradevice reliability found no differences (P < .05) between 4 SPI-ProX II accelerometers, with a low coefficient of variation (1.87–2.21%). SPI-ProX II accelerometers demonstrated small to medium effect-size (ES) differences (0.10–0.44) between groups and excellent interdevice reliability, with no difference found between units (F = 0.826, P = .484). Validity testing revealed significant differences between devices (P = .001), with high percentage differences (27.5–30.5%) and a large ES (>3.44).
SPI-ProX II accelerometers demonstrated excellent intra- and interaccelerometer reliability. However, static and dynamic validity were poor, and caution is recommended when measuring the absolute magnitude of acceleration, particularly for high-frequency movements. Regular assessment of individual devices is advised, particularly for mechanical damage and signal-drift errors. It is recommended that guidelines be provided by the manufacturer on measuring shifts in the base accelerometer signal, including time frames for assessing accelerometer axis, magnitude of errors, and calibration of accelerometers from a stable reference point.
Tests of repeated-sprint ability provide a simple way to evaluate the basic physical characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in various multiple-sprint sports. Furthermore, such tests help overcome the complications associated with field-based evaluations of this type of exercise. Nevertheless, despite over 40 y of research, many issues regarding our understanding of multiple-sprint work remain unresolved. This commentary aims to raise awareness of issues relating to methodology, physiological responses, and the effectiveness of various ergogenic and training strategies; to promote a greater understanding; and to drive future research.
Darren J. Burgess
Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.
Brendan M. Marshall, Andrew D. Franklyn-Miller, Kieran A. Moran, Enda A. King, Siobhán C. Strike and Éanna C Falvey
Chronic athletic groin pain (AGP) is common in field sports and has been associated with abnormal movement control and loading of the hip and pelvis during play. A single-leg squat (SLS) is commonly used by clinicians to assess movement control, but whether it can provide insight into control during more dynamic sporting movements in AGP patients is unclear.
To determine the relationships between biomechanical measures in an SLS and the same measures in a single-leg drop landing, single-leg hurdle hop, and a cutting maneuver in AGP patients.
40 recreational field-sports players diagnosed with AGP.
A biomechanical analysis of each individual’s SLS, drop landing, hurdle hop, and cut was undertaken.
Main Outcome Measures:
Hip, knee, and pelvis angular displacement and hip and knee peak moments. Pearson product–moment correlations were used to examine relationships between SLS measures and equivalent measures in the other movements.
There were no significant correlations between any hip or pelvis measure in the SLS with the same measures in the drop landing, hurdle hop, or cut (r = .03–.43, P > .05). Knee frontal- and transverse-plane angular displacement were related in the SLS and drop landing only, while knee moments were related in the SLS, drop-landing, and hurdle hop (r = .50–.67, P < .05).
For AGP patients, an SLS did not provide meaningful insight into hip and pelvis control or loading during sporting movements that are associated with injury development. The usefulness of an SLS test in the assessment of movement control and loading in AGP patients is thus limited. The SLS provided moderate insight into knee control while landing and therefore may be of use in the examination of knee-injury risk.
Jessica R. Fairbairn and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven
Clinical Scenario: Until recently, injury epidemiology data on elite Paralympic athletes were limited. Current data suggest high rates of shoulder injury in wheelchair athletes. Differences in shoulder injury rates between sports have not been reported in this population. Clinical Question: Is the incidence of shoulder injury in elite wheelchair athletes different between sports? Summary of Key Findings: Shoulder injury rates are high in elite wheelchair athletes, particularly in sports such as field events and fencing that require a stable base (eg, trunk, core control) from which to perform. Wheelchair racing requires repetitive motions that contribute to shoulder injuries, but rates are lower than field sports and fencing. Wheelchair curling and sledge hockey have low shoulder injury risk. Clinical Bottom Line: Shoulder injury rates vary based on sport in elite wheelchair athletes. In addition to incorporating shoulder complex specific rehabilitation for overuse shoulder injuries, clinicians should focus on core and trunk stabilization in elite wheelchair athletes competing in sports, such as field events and fencing. Strength of Recommendation: Grade C evidence exists that reports shoulder injury rates among elite wheelchair athletes differ based on sport participation.
Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F. Coughlan, Wayne McNulty, David Campbell and Eamonn Delahunt
performance in field sports and any impairment in these could predispose an athlete to injury during sports participation. The available evidence suggests that athletic performance may be unfavorably affected when athletes return to play immediately after cryotherapy application. 14 Dynamic postural balance
Jade A.Z. Haycraft, Stephanie Kovalchik, David B. Pyne and Sam Robertson
; however, this study reported only moderate associations between 20-m MSFT and match activity measures in National U18s. Movement screening has been popular in several court and field sports. While movement screenings have been used in AFL studies as an injury prevention 31 and talent identification tool