manual wheelchairs ( 37 ). Thus, there is clinical relevance for studies that evaluate field tests, such as the wheelchair propulsion test, which can assess the HR peak easily and quickly, respecting the muscle functions involved in a specific activity, and provide results similar to those obtained in
Marisa Maia Leonardi-Figueiredo, Mariana Angélica de Souza, Elisangela Aparecida da Silva Lizzi, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de Oliveira, Julio Cesar Crescencio, Pedro Vellosa Schwartzmann, Lourenço Gallo Jr, and Ana Claudia Mattiello-Sverzut
Aitor Iturricastillo, Cristina Granados, Raúl Reina, José Manuel Sarabia, Ander Romarate, and Javier Yanci
variation (CV) was calculated for each performance variable as (SD/mean) × 100, to determine the mean variability. 27 In addition, reliability between trials for field test was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient. Relationship between MPV and %1RM in the BP exercise was studied by fitting second
Andy Galbraith, James Hopker, Stephen Lelliott, Louise Diddams, and Louis Passfield
To compare critical speed (CS) measured from a single-visit field test of the distance–time relationship with the “traditional” treadmill time-to-exhaustion multivisit protocol.
Ten male distance runners completed treadmill and field tests to calculate CS and the maximum distance performed above CS (D′). The field test involved 3 runs on a single visit to an outdoor athletics track over 3600, 2400, and 1200 m. Two field-test protocols were evaluated using either a 30-min recovery or a 60-min recovery between runs. The treadmill test involved runs to exhaustion at 100%, 105%, and 110% of velocity at VO2max, with 24 h recovery between runs.
There was no difference in CS measured with the treadmill and 30-min- and 60-minrecovery field tests (P < .05). CS from the treadmill test was highly correlated with CS from the 30- and 60-min-recovery field tests (r = .89, r = .82; P < .05). However there was a difference and no correlation in D′ between the treadmill test and the 30 and 60-min-recovery field tests (r = .13; r = .33, P > .05). A typical error of the estimate of 0.14 m/s (95% confidence limits 0.09–0.26 m/s) was seen for CS and 88 m (95% confidence limits 60–169 m) for D′. A coefficient of variation of 0.4% (95% confidence limits: 0.3–0.8%) was found for repeat tests of CS and 13% (95% confidence limits 10–27%) for D′.
The single-visit method provides a useful alternative for assessing CS in the field.
Jeffrey A. Woods, Russell R. Pate, and Maria L. Burgess
Field tests of upper body muscular strength and endurance (UBMSE) are often administered to children, but little is known about the determinants of performance on these tests. Therefore the purpose of this investigation was to examine potential determinants of performance on several common field tests of UBMSE including pull-ups, flexed-arm hang, push-ups, and two types of modified pull-ups. Subjects were 56 girls and 38 boys, ages 9 to 11 years. Potential determinants assessed were age, height, weight, gender, % fat, physical activity, and laboratory measures of muscular strength and endurance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the laboratory measures of UBMSE failed to account for significant fractions of variance in performance on four of the five tests. However, % fat was significantly associated with performance on four of five tests. These results indicate that factors other than muscular strength and endurance account for most of the variance in performance, and that % fat appears to be a particularly important determinant of performance.
Michael J. Buono, Julia J. Roby, Frank G. Micale, James F. Sallis, and W. Elizabeth Shepard
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of three of the most commonly used field tests to predict maximum oxygen uptake in children and adolescents. VO2max was directly measured during a maximal treadmill test in 90 children (10-18 yrs). Each subject also performed, in duplicate, a timed distance run (1 mile), a step test, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test. A multiple regression equation was developed with directly measured VO2max as the dependent variable and mile-run time, gender, skinfold thickness, and body weight as independent variables. The equation had a multiple R=0.84 and a standard error of estimate of 9%, or 4.3 ml/kg/min. The results suggest that when the three most commonly used field tests to predict aerobic capacity are compared in the same group of children, the timed distance run is superior in both validity and reliability.
Andy Galbraith, James Hopker, Marco Cardinale, Brian Cunniffe, and Louis Passfield
To examine the training and concomitant changes in laboratory- and field-test performance of highly trained endurance runners.
Fourteen highly trained male endurance runners (mean ± SD maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 69.8 ± 6.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1) completed this 1-y training study commencing in April. During the study the runners undertook 5 laboratory tests of VO2max, lactate threshold (LT), and running economy and 9 field tests to determine critical speed (CS) and the modeled maximum distance performed above CS (D′). The data for different periods of the year were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The influence of training on laboratory- and field-test changes was analyzed by multiple regression.
Total training distance varied during the year and was lower in May–July (333 ± 206 km, P = .01) and July–August (339 ± 206 km, P = .02) than in the subsequent January–February period (474 ± 188 km). VO2max increased from the April baseline (4.7 ± 0.4 L/min) in October and January periods (5.0 ± 0.4 L/min, P ≤ .01). Other laboratory measures did not change. Runners’ CS was lowest in August (4.90 ± 0.32 m/s) and highest in February (4.99 ± 0.30 m/s, P = .02). Total training distance and the percentage of training time spent above LT velocity explained 33% of the variation in CS.
Highly trained endurance runners achieve small but significant changes in VO2max and CS in a year. Increases in training distance and time above LT velocity were related to increases in CS.
Norman S. Hannibal III, Sharon Ann Plowman, Marilyn A. Looney, and Jason Brandenburg
Strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility are important components of healthy back function. This study determined the reliability and evaluated the validity of selected low back field tests (FITNESSGRAM ® Trunk Extension [FG-TE] and Box 90° Dynamic Trunk Extension [B-90° DTE]) when compared to laboratory tests (Parallel Roman Chair Dynamic Trunk Extension [PRC-DTE], Parallel Roman Chair Static Trunk Extension [PRC-STE], and Dynamometer Static Back Lift [DSBL]).
Forty males age 15.1 ± 1.2 yr and 32 females age 15.5 ± 1.2 yr participated.
Intraclass test-retest reliability coefficients (one-way ANOVA model for a single measure) ranged from .940 to .996. Validity coefficients determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficients for males and females, respectively, were as follows: B-90° DTE vs. PRC-DTE = .82, .62 (p < .05); B-90° DTE vs. PRC-STE = .55, .38 (p < .05); B-90° DTE vs. DSBL = −.29, −.23; FG-TE vs. PRC-DTE = .23, −.11; FG-TE vs. PRC-STE = −.15, .33; and FG-TE vs. DSBL = −.04, −.36.
B-90° DTE was shown to be a valid field test when compared to PRC-DTE, but only for the males. Further research on the PRC-DTE and PRC-STE items for adolescents is recommended.
Michelle Ihmels, Gregory J. Welk, James J. McClain, and Jodee Schaben
Advances in BIA offer practical alternative approaches to assessing body composition in young adolescents and have not been studied for comparability.
This study compared reliability and convergent validity of three field tests (2-site skinfold, Omron and Tanita BIA devices) on young adolescents. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients, convergent validity was examined by computing correlations among the three estimates, differences in estimated body fat values were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA, and classification agreement was computed for achieving FITNESSGRAM ® Healthy Fitness Zone.
ICC values of all three measures exceeded .97. Correlations ranged from .74 to .81 for males and .79 to .91 for females. Classification agreement values ranged from 82.8% to 92.6%.
Results suggest general agreement among the selected methods of body composition assessments in both boys and girls with the exception that percent body fat in boys by Tanita BIA is significantly lower than skinfold estimation.
Hervé Assadi and Romuald Lepers
To compare the physiological responses and maximal aerobic running velocity (MAV) during an incremental intermittent (45-s run/15-s rest) field test (45-15FIT) vs an incremental continuous treadmill test (TR) and to demonstrate that the MAV obtained during 45-15FIT (MAV45-15) was relevant to elicit a high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a 30-s/30-s intermittent training session.
Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and lactate concentration ([La]) were measured in 20 subjects during 2 maximal incremental tests and four 15-min intermittent tests. The time spent above 90% and 95% VO2max (t90% and t95% VO2max, respectively) was determined.
Maximal physiological parameters were similar during the 45-15FIT and TR tests (VO2max 58.6 ± 5.9 mL · kg−1 · min−1 for TR vs 58.5 ± 7.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1 for 45-15FIT; HRmax 200 ± 8 beats/min for TR vs 201 ± 7 beats/min for 45-15FIT). MAV45-15 was significantly (P < .001) greater than MAVTR (17.7 ± 1.1 vs 15.6 ± 1.4 km/h). t90% and t95% VO2max during the 30-s/30-s performed at MAVTR were significantly (P < .01) lower than during the 30-s/30-s performed at MAV45-15. Similar VO2 during intermittent tests performed at MAV45-15 and at MAVTR can be obtained by reducing the recovery time or using active recovery.
The results suggested that the 45-15FIT is an accurate field test to determine VO2max and that MAV45-15 can be used during high-intensity intermittent training such as 30-s runs interspersed with 30-s rests (30-s/30-s) to elicit a high percentage of VO2max.
Montassar Tabben, Jeremy Coquart, Helmi Chaabène, Emerson Franchini, Karim Chamari, and Claire Tourny
This study determined the validity and reliability of a new specific field test that was based on the scientific data from the latest research.
Seventeen international-level karatekas participated in the study: 14 men (age 24.1 ± 4.6 y, body mass 65.7 ± 10.8 kg) and 3 women (age 19 ± 3.6 y, body mass 54.1 ± 0.9 kg). All performed the new karate-specific test (KST) 2 times (test and retest sessions were carried out on separated occasions 1 wk apart). Thirteen men also performed a laboratory test to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max).
Test–retest results showed the KST to be reliable. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak heart rate (HRpeak), blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion, and time to exhaustion (TE) did not display a difference between the test and the retest. The SEM and ICC for relative and absolute VO2peak and TE were <5% and >.90, respectively. Significant correlations were found between VO2peak (mL · kg−1 · min−1) and TE measured from the KST (r = .71, 95%CI 0.35–0.88, P < .0001). There was also no significant difference between VO2peak measured from the KST and VO2max recorded from the cycle-ergometer laboratory test (55.1 ± 4.8 vs 53.2 ± 6.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1, respectively; t = –1.85, df = 12, P = .08, dz = 0.51 [small]). The Bland and Altman analyses reported a mean difference (bias) ± the 95% limits of agreement of 1.9 ± 7.35 mL · kg−1 · min−1.
This study showed that the new KST test, with effort patterns replicating real karate combat sessions, can be considered a valid and reliable karate-specific field test for assessing karatekas’ endurance fitness.