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Rahel Gilgen-Ammann, Wolfgang Taube, and Thomas Wyss


To quantify gait asymmetry in well-trained runners with and without previous injuries during interval training sessions incorporating different distances.


Twelve well-trained runners participated in 8 high-intensity interval-training sessions on a synthetic track over a 4-wk period. The training consisted of 10 × 400, 8 × 600, 7 × 800, and 6 × 1000-m running. Using an inertial measurement unit, the ground-contact time (GCT) of every step was recorded. To determine gait asymmetry, the GCTs between the left and right foot were compared.


Overall, gait asymmetry was 3.3% ± 1.4%, and over the course of a training session, the gait asymmetry did not change (F 1,33 = 1.673, P = .205). The gait asymmetry of the athletes with a previous history of injury was significantly greater than that of the athletes without a previous injury. However, this injury-related enlarged asymmetry was detectable only at short (400 m), but not at longer, distances (600–1000 m).


The gait asymmetry of well-trained athletes differed, depending on their history of injury and the running distance. To detect gait asymmetries, high-intensity runs over relatively short distances are recommended.

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Theodore E. Milner, Emily J. Lai, and Antony J. Hodgson

In reaching to a target, stability near the target may be more critical for success than stability far from the target. Consequently, we postulated that high instability near the start would evoke less compensation than high instability near the target. Three stability conditions were implemented using a robot manipulandum: neutral stability everywhere (null field); high instability along the first half of the trajectory decreasing as the target was approached (start unstable); and instability increasing along the first half of the trajectory and remaining high as the target was approached (end unstable). Under the start unstable condition, the stiffness of the arm in the region of highest instability was significantly less than under the end unstable condition. Furthermore, the stability of the system (manipulandum plus arm) was much lower under the start unstable condition than under the null field condition whereas it was similar under the end unstable and null field conditions.

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen, and Kristian Overgaard

2 measurements and 2) field condition walking and running on a predefined paved route. Participants of the first recruitment performed laboratory trials only, while the second group performed both laboratory and field trials. Both the laboratory and the field experiments consisted of multiple

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Benjamin A. McKay, Jace A. Delaney, Andrew Simpkin, Theresa Larkin, Andrew Murray, Charles R. Pedlar, Nathan A. Lewis, and John A. Sampson

are exposed to demanding physical workloads incorporating heavy weightlifting alongside on-field conditioning coupled with an intense “camp phase” comprising football-specific and scrimmage-based sessions. 1 Camp phases represent a 2½-fold increase in workload relative to the off season due to the

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Justin H. Rigby and Austin M. Hagan

-intensity cycling tests, 10 and field conditioning. 11 Providing protection or recovery from fatigue may also have a role in injury prevention as higher injury rates occur in a fatigued state. 12 , 13 Previous research has established that red and infrared wavelengths, used with traditional handheld

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Daniele Conte, Nicholas Kolb, Aaron T. Scanlan, and Fabrizio Santolamazza

TJ . Performance changes following a field conditioning program in junior and senior rugby league players . J Strength Cond Res . 2006 ; 20 ( 1 ): 215 – 221 . PubMed ID: 16503683 16503683 22. Rogalski B , Dawson B , Heasman J , Gabbett TJ . Training and game loads and injury risk in

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Douglas A. Pizac, Charles B. Swanik, Joseph J. Glutting, and Thomas W. Kaminski

shoe design in ankle sprain rates among collegiate basketball players . J Athl Train . 2008 ; 43 ( 3 ): 230 – 233 . PubMed doi:10.4085/1062-6050-43.3.230 10.4085/1062-6050-43.3.230 18523571 24. Iacovelli JN , Yang J , Thomas G , Wu H , Schiltz T , Foster DT . The effect of field

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Tannath J. Scott, Heidi R. Thornton, Macfarlane T.U. Scott, Ben J. Dascombe, and Grant M. Duthie

experienced by athletes during training and match play, albeit with noted limitations. 1 Ultimately, such methods provide performance staff with greater capacity to monitor athletes’ training loads and prescribe field conditioning, increasing the specificity of the provided stimulus. Given the repeated high

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Carrie M. Geremia, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, James F. Sallis, and Brian E. Saelens

and courts) 63 688   Abbreviated (Field condition, cleanliness, most lined, components present, Court condition, most lined, components present, Skate park condition, cleanliness) {averaged} plus 1 point each for fields, courts, and skate area presence 12 4   Mini Presence of fields, courts, skate

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Mark Booth, Stephen Cobley, and Rhonda Orr

): 106066 . PubMed ID: 25153137 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106066 10.1371/journal.pone.0106066 34. Gabbett TJ . Performance changes following a field conditioning program in junior and senior rugby league players . J Strength Cond Res . 2006 ; 20 ( 1 ): 215 – 221 . PubMed ID: 16503683 16503683 35