likely to be meaningful to the child and might increase task specificity. Several field-based tests for assessing agility exist ( 3 , 4 , 9 , 18 , 20 ). These include the 505-agility test, T-agility test, Illinois agility test, 10 × 5-m test, and the hexagon agility test ( 3 , 4 , 9 , 18 , 20 ). These
Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Wendy Aertssen and Emmanuel Bonney
Jorge R. Fernandez-Santos, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Jose Luis Gonzalez-Montesinos and Jose Castro-Piñero
The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and the validity of the handgrip, basketball throw and pushups tests in children aged 6–12 years. One hundred and eighty healthy children (82 girls) agreed to participate in this study. All the upper body muscular fitness tests were performed twice (7 days apart) whereas the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test was performed 2 days after the first session of testing. All the tests showed a high reproducibility (ICC > 0.9) except the push-ups test (intertrial difference = 0.77 ± 2.38, p < .001 and the percentage error = 9%). The handgrip test showed the highest association with 1RM bench press test (r = .79, p < .01; R 2 = .621). In conclusion the handgrip and basketball throw tests are shown as reliable and valid tests to assess upper body muscular strength in children. More studies are needed to assess the validity and the reliability of the upper body muscular endurance tests in children.
Beverly J. Warren, Ruth G. Dotson, David C. Nieman and Diane E. Butterworth
The accuracy of a 1-mile walking test to estimate aerobic power was assessed in a group of 28 sedentary elderly women (age = 73.5 ±0.8 yrs; body mass = 66.0 ±2.2 kg). Subjects were given the walk test and a graded maximal treadmill test for VO2peak at baseline and then were randomly assigned to either a walking group or a mild calisthenics control group for 12 weeks. Both the treadmill test and the walk test were re-administered at 5 weeks and at 12 weeks. The data suggest that regression approaches underestimate measured VO2peak by 17% in sedentary elderly women, but that accuracy is much improved after 5 weeks of brisk walking. Measurements at 12 weeks demonstrated even closer approximations of the laboratory measurement of VO2peak for the walking group. The 1-mile walk test underestimated VO2peak for the calisthenics group by 11% at the end of the 12 weeks. It was concluded that the 1-mile walk test underestimates measured VO2peak in elderly women unless they are accustomed to brisk walking.
Patrick Delisle-Houde, Nathan A. Chiarlitti, Ryan E.R. Reid and Ross E. Andersen
informed of the risks prior to obtaining informed written consent. Design Participants were recruited to take part in a descriptive study that was divided in to 3 separate testing sessions: (1) common laboratory/field-based testing (ie, off-ice pro-agility, long jump, vertical jump, Wingate), (2) novel
Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito
studies are needed to explore the physiological response using similar field-based tests and high-level cyclists. First and second kilometers showed a significantly higher power output and velocity (shown in Table 2 ). This observation may be attributed to lower gradients in the earlier stages of the
Phillip C. Usera, John T. Foley and Joonkoo Yun
The purpose of this study was to cross-validate skinfold and anthropometric measurements for individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Estimated body fat of 14 individuals with DS and 13 individuals without DS was compared between criterion measurement (BOP POD®) and three prediction equations. Correlations between criterion and field-based tests for non-DS group and DS groups ranged from .81 – .94 and .11 – .54, respectively. Root-Mean-Squared-Error was employed to examine the amount of error on the field-based measurements. A MANOVA indicated significant differences in accuracy between groups for Jackson’s equation and Lohman’s equation. Based on the results, efforts should now be directed toward developing new equations that can assess the body composition of individuals with DS in a clinically feasible way.
Emma Sconce, Paul Jones, Ellena Turner, Paul Comfort and Philip Graham-Smith
Hamstring injury-risk assessment has primarily been investigated using isokinetic dynamometry. However, practical issues such as cost and availability limit the widespread application of isokinetics for injury-risk assessment; thus, field-based alternatives for assessing eccentric hamstring strength are needed.
The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the angle achieved during Nordic hamstring lowers (break-point angle) as a field-based test for eccentric hamstring strength.
Sixteen male (n = 7) and female (n = 9) soccer players (mean ± SD age 24 ± 6 y, height 1.77 ± 0.12 m, and body mass 68.5 ± 16.5 kg) acted as subjects for the study.
Main Outcome Measures:
The authors explored relationships between the Nordic break-point angle (the point at which the subject can no longer resist the increasing gravitational moment during a Nordic hamstring lower) measured from video and isokinetic peak torque and angle of peak torque of right- and left-knee flexors.
The results revealed a meaningful relationship between eccentric knee-flexor peak torque (average of right and left limbs) and the Nordic break-point angle (r = −.808, r 2 = 65%, P < .00001). However, there was a weak relationship observed (r = .480, r 2 = 23%, P = .06) between break-point angle and the angle of peak torque (average of right and left limbs).
The results suggest that the break-point angle achieved during Nordic hamstring lowers could be used as a field-based assessment of eccentric hamstring strength.
Siobhan O'Connor, Noel McCaffrey, Enda Whyte and Kieran Moran
Context: Scapular dyskinesis has been identified as a possible risk factor for injury in overhead athletes. There is a need to develop a simple, inexpensive, time-efficient field-based test that can establish the presence and severity of both scapular dyskinesis and its individual components in a musculoskeletal preparticipation screening. To ensure confidence in the test results, high reliability must be displayed. Objective: To establish the intertester and intratester reliability of a simple field-based screening tool for scapular dyskinesis. Design: Reliability study. Setting: Athletic therapy facilities. Participants: 15 physically active men (19.46 ± 0.63 y) free from any orthopedic or neurological disorders, recruited from a convenience sample of college students. Intervention: Testers underwent 3 training sessions where the instructions and scoring system of the test were explained, demonstrations of the tests were given, and opportunities to practice the test were provided. Three testers independently rated 3 trials, and the process was repeated at the same time the following week. Main Outcome Measures: Scapular dyskinesis was assessed using the following components: winging, loss/lack of control when lifting, loss/lack of control when lowering, and scapular asymmetry. A 0-3 rating (0 = no issue, 1 = slight issue, 2 = moderate issue, 3 = severe issue) was provided by the tester independently on each side separately and on scapular asymmetry. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), 95% confidence intervals, and standard error of measurement (SEM) were computed to establish reliability. Results: Excellent ICC values were found for intertester reliability (ICCs .80-1.00) and good to excellent intratester reliability (ICCs .60-1.00 for tester A, .63-1.00 for tester B, and .75-1.00 for tester C) for all components of the test. The SEM was not found to be clinically significant. Conclusions: The simple field-based screening tool developed to assess scapular dyskinesis demonstrates high reliability and so is a reliable tool to use in preparticipation screenings. Future research should establish its validity.
Stephen M. Glass, Alessandro Napoli, Elizabeth D. Thompson, Iyad Obeid and Carole A. Tucker
and testing protocols, 3 , 4 but such methods are seldom used for wide-scale or field-based testing due to their prohibitive cost and lack of accessibility. Where laboratory methods are impractical, field-based tests may be used in their place. The balance error scoring system (BESS) 5 and its
Justin W.Y. Lee, Ming-Jing Cai, Patrick S.H. Yung and Kai-Ming Chan
level of delayed onset of muscle soreness after taking the test, which may reduce the clinical applicability of this testing method among the football population. Alternative field-based testing methods have been suggested to improve test’s cost effectiveness. These methods measure maximal eccentric