maintenance training programs to avoid excessive detraining. 1 The preseason aims to prepare players for the upcoming competitive season, during which teams compete to attain the highest possible rank in competition standings. 1 – 3 The final team rank is typically used to determine the best
Davide Ferioli, Aaron T. Scanlan, Daniele Conte, Emanuele Tibiletti, and Ermanno Rampinini
Jon J. Dart
This study focuses on the use of new technologies by the sports-media complex, looking specifically at the 2006 FIFA World Cup Finals. Combining the world’s single largest sports media event with one of the most current, complex forms of Web-based communication, this article explores extent to which football fans embedded in Germany used the Internet to blog their World Cup experiences. Various categories of blog sites were identified, including independent bloggers, bloggers using football-themed Web sites, and blogs hosted on corporate-sponsored platforms. The study shows that the anticipated “democratizing potential” of blogging was not evident during Germany 2006. Instead, blogging acted as a platform for corporations, which, employing professional journalists, told the fans’ World Cup stories.
Brian Hanley, Trent Stellingwerff, and Florentina J. Hettinga
The 800 and 1500 m are middle-distance running events contested at all global athletics championships. Competitors qualify for the final via a series of rounds in a process that usually comprises heats and semifinals, from which the highest-placed athletes in each race, and a smaller number of
Robert J. Aughey
Australian football (AF) is a highly intermittent sport, requiring athletes to accelerate hundreds of times with repeated bouts of high-intensity running (HIR). Players aim to be in peak physical condition for finals, with anecdotal evidence of increased speed and pressure of these games.
However, no data exists on the running demands of finals games, and therefore the aim of this study was to compare the running demands of finals to regular season games with matched players and opponents.
Player movement was recorded by GPS at 5 Hz and expressed per period of the match (rotation), for total distance, high-intensity running (HIR, 4.17-10.00 m·s-1) and maximal accelerations (2.78-10.00 m·s–2). All data was compared for regular season and finals games and the magnitude of effects was analyzed with the effect size (ES) statistic and expressed with confidence intervals.
Each of the total distance (11%; ES: 0.78 ± 0.30), high-intensity running distance (9%; ES: 0.29 ± 0.25) and number of maximal accelerations (97%; ES: 1.30 ± 0.20) increased in finals games. The largest percentage increases in maximal accelerations occurred from a commencement velocity of between 3–4 (47%; ES: 0.56 ± 0.21) and 4–5 m·s-1 (51%; ES: 0.72 ± 0.26), and with <19 s between accelerations (53%; ES: 0.63 ± 0.27).
Elite AF players nearly double the number of maximal accelerations in finals compared with regular season games. This large increase is superimposed on requirements to cover a greater total distance and spend more time at high velocity during finals games. Players can be effectively conditioned to cope with these increased demands, even during a long competitive season.
Mero Antti, Paavo V. Komi, Tapio Korjus, Enrique Navarro, and Robert J. Gregor
This study investigated body segment contributions to javelin throwing during the last thrust phases. A 3-D analysis was performed on male and female javelin throwers during the finals of the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona. The subjects were videotaped from the right sight of the throwing area by two NAC high-speed cameras operating at 100 frames per second. Both men’s and women’s grip of javelin and body center of mass displayed a curved pathway to the right from the left (bracing) foot during the final foot contact. The position of the body center of mass decreased at the beginning of the final foot contact, but after the decrease period it began to increase. Simultaneously with the increase, the peak joint center speeds occurred in a proper sequence from proximal to distal segments and finally to the javelin at release. Release speed correlated significantly with throwing distance in both male and females.
Frank L. Gardner
Consistent with the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology’s mission, the current special issue on psychophysiology and neuroscience in sport has brought together a variety of timely papers exploring the relationship between physiological processes and both sport performance and personal well-being. These final thoughts observe patterns noted among the papers in this issue, highlight future research directions, and most importantly, clarify where this emerging technology and its associated procedures currently stand in the evidence-based practice of clinical sport psychology.
Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison
During the 5-day window of April 3–7, 2020, thousands of basketball fans were set to descend upon Atlanta and be entertained by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Men’s Basketball Final Four. In conjunction with the Final Four, the Division II and Division III Men’s Basketball
Tim McGarry, J. Timothy Inglis, and Ian M. Franks
Reduced surface electromyogram (EMG) onsets, observed in some cases when trying to stop an earlier intended action before it begins, were taken to suggest a control process that remains open to stopping right up to the point of motor discharge. This interpretation argues against a final ballistic (involuntary) process in the control of voluntary action. That a final ballistic process may receive reduced input shortly before its manifestation as reduced output (i.e., motor discharge), however, provides for an alternative interpretation of these same data. In this study we used the Hoffmann (H) reflex to further investigate for stopping effects in the brief interval before voluntary motor discharge. Late stopping effects on the facilitated H-reflex within the time window that a final ballistic process would otherwise be expected (i.e, shortly before EMG onset) were observed in some instances. We conclude from these data good evidence against a final ballistic process in the control of voluntary action.
Dusko B. Ilic, Dragan M. Mirkov, and Slobodan Jaric
Nine subjects (experimental group) were tested on rapid elbow flexion and extension movements performed in the same final position, before and after extensive practice of the movements. Nine additional subjects (control group) were also tested, but without any practice between the tests. Comparison of the pretest and posttest results suggested that the experimental group decreased their variable error (i.e., standard deviation of the final movement position) in both practiced (elbow flexion) and nonpracticed (elbow extension) movements. The control group, however, did not improve in either of tested movements. The experimental group demonstrated lower variable error in the nonpracticed elbow extensions than the control group, while the same difference for practiced elbow flexion movements was slightly below the level of significance. The results support the importance of the final position in programming of rapid, self-terminated movements; however, they do not rule out the role of other kinetic and kinematic variables (such as movement distance).
Patricia Guimaraes Couto, Romulo Bertuzzi, Carla Caroline de Souza, Hessel Marani Lima, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin Kiss, Fernando Roberto de-Oliveira, and Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva
This study analyzed the pacing employed by young runners in 10,000 m time-trials under 3 dietary regimens of different carbohydrate (CHO) intakes. Nineteen boys (13–18 years) ate either their normal CHO diet (56% CHO), high (70% CHO), or low (25% CHO) CHO diets for 48 hr; the boys then performed a 10,000 m run (crossover design). The high CHO diet led to faster final sprint (14.4 ± 2.2 km·h-1) and a better performance (50.0 ± 7.0 min) compared with the low CHO diet (13.3 ± 2.4 km·h-1 and 51.9 ± 8.3 min, respectively, p < .05). However, the final sprint and performance time in the high CHO or low CHO diets were statistically not significantly different from the normal CHO diet (13.8 ± 2.2 km·h-1 and 50.9 ± 7.4 min; p > .05). CHO oxidation rate during the constant load exercise at 65% of VO2max was elevated in high CHO diet (1.05 ± 0.38 g·min-1) compared with low CHO diet (0.63 ± 0.36 g·min-1). The rating of perceived exertion increased linearly throughout the trial, independently of the dietary regimen. In conclusion, the high CHO diet induced higher CHO oxidation rates, increased running speed in the final 400 m and enhanced overall running performance, compared with low CHO.