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Tan Zhang, Anqi Deng and Ang Chen

weakness could be significant because the understanding of the specificity principle is likely associated with setting appropriate personal fitness goals. Understandings of progression and overload It appeared that the principles of progression and overload had been mastered by a considerable number of

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Craig Parkes and Michael A. Hemphill

movement, seek to implement nontraditional activities such as yoga, and oppose nonfitness-related physical education goals. Recruits with fitness orientations may well be on the increase due to the increased focus on health-related fitness goals in schools ( McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2009 , 2014 ). As a

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Lois Michaud Tomson, Robert P. Pangrazi, Glenn Friedman and Ned Hutchison

While research has confirmed a negative relationship between adult depression and physical activity, there is little evidence for children. This study examined the relationship of being classified as physically active or inactive by a parent or a teacher to depressive symptoms in children 8 to 12 years of age (N = 933). It also assessed the relationship of playing sports outside of school, and of meeting health related fitness standards, to symptoms of depression. Relative risk of depressive symptoms for inactive classification was 2.8 to 3.4 times higher than it was for active, 1.3 to 2.4 times higher for children not playing sports outside of school, and 1.5 to 4.0 times higher for those not meeting health related fitness goals.

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Gareth Stratton

Physical educators have purported to teach children to be physically active and to promote their fitness. To achieve these goals, children should regularly experience moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education lessons. For the purposes of this review, moderate physical activity is that which elicits a heart rate of 50% of maximum heart rate reserve (MHRR), moderate-to-vigorous activity elicits 60% of MHRR, and vigorous activity elicits 75% of MHRR. Duration criteria were set at 50% of lesson time or 20 min. The majority of lessons described in previous reports failed to achieve these criteria, although problems were noted in method and analyses of data. Lessons with physical activity as a direct goal have been successful in increasing MVPA. A greater focus on physical activity is required in the planning and delivery of physical education lessons if the physical activity and fitness goals of the physical education curriculum are to be met.

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Ciarán P. Friel and Carol Ewing Garber

rate, sleep duration), and they have been promoted as motivational tools to help users reach their health and fitness goals ( Fitbit Inc., 2017 ). However, research on the use of PAMs to promote physical activity (PA) behavior has been equivocal, with some studies reporting positive outcomes ( Cadmus

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Senlin Chen and Alex Garn

sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity for better health. Recognizing the need to address recreational and public health goals in and through physical education, Ennis endorsed the educational approach where “teachers place a balanced emphasis on skill performance and fitness goals while

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Margaret T. Harris and Mike Metzler

successful strategies for maintaining good cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. The course covers topics ranging from fitness assessment to the development and maintenance of fitness goals. In a typical calendar year, enrollment in the personal fitness

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Rodney P. Joseph, Kathryn E. Royse and Tanya J. Benitez

, physical activity. Note: Study design: 0 = uncontrolled, 1 = nonrandomized, and 2 = randomized. PA focus: 0 = focused on multiple behaviors and 1 = focused on PA/fitness only. PA goals: 0 = no goals identified; 1 = PA/fitness goals implied but not clear; and 2 = PA/fitness goals explicitly stated

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

successful, these negative negotiations had the effect of weakening GTAs’ instructional and transitional systems and creating secondary vectors in which merely “being active” during class sessions was substituted for specific learning, performance, or fitness goals. In congruence with past research ( Wahl

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

fitness ability; adherence to daily meal plan and fluid requirements; achievement of weekly weight gain goals; amount of commitment to treatment targets; fitness goals and prior sport involvement; consistency in following fitness parameters; openness to be mindful and remain in the present moment during