This study examined adolescents’ interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval, and completed two interest scales immediately after each test. Test performances, interest, and body mass index data were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance/covariance, and hierarchical regression analyses. Student situational and personal interests were low-to-moderate overall in both aerobic fitness tests. Boys reported significantly higher situational interest than girls, but there was no gender difference in personal interest. Personal interest was a significant predictor for PACER (b=.27) and 1MR (b=-.37). The predictability of situational interest to testing performances varied between PACER and 1MR. PACER and 1MR might have rendered distinct motivational stimuli that led to the varied predicting power of situational interest.
Xihe Zhu, Senlin Chen and James Parrott
Kevin Mercier and Stephen Silverman
The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of high school students toward fitness testing. An instrument containing 18 items and four factors measuring student’s attitudes toward fitness testing: cognitive, affect-enjoyment, affect-feelings, and affect-teacher was completed by 524 boys and 675 girls (N = 1199). MANOVA indicated significant differences among the dependent variables for grade and gender. A stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated affect-feelings then affect-enjoyment as variables that predicted these differences. Follow-up tests indicated that gender, and not grade, was the cause of the significant affect-feelings differences. MANOVA for fitness test types and the follow-up DFA indicated that students who completed the FitnessGram test had significantly higher cognitive attitudes than those who completed the President’s Challenge. The results suggest that student gender and the type of fitness test impact and lead to differences in attitudes.
Han C.G. Kemper and Willem Van Mechelen
The purpose of this article is to clarify the scientific basis of physical fitness assessment in children and to review the European efforts to develop a EUROFIT fitness test battery for the youth in the countries of the Council of Europe. The development of EUROFIT is based on the efforts made in the United States in the 1950s and in Europe in the 1980s. Physical fitness measurement is not identical to physiological measurement: The EUROFIT tests are aimed at measuring abilities rather than skills. Correlations between physical fitness tests and physiological laboratory tests show varying results and, therefore, need to be continued. Reliability of fitness tests needs to be continually studied. Because of the multipurposes of physical fitness testing, EUROFIT norm- and criterion-referenced scales for EUROFIT have to be developed. Examples of scaling methods are given. Implementation of the EUROFIT fitness tests for educational purposes is urgently needed.
Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short
In this manuscript, the conceptual framework for the Brockport Physical Fitness Test (BPFT) is presented. The framework provides the basis for the selection of test items and standards to assess health-related physical fitness of youngsters with disabilities. The framework defines and describes the relationships among health, physical activity, and health-related physical fitness and presents the process used for personalizing health-related criterion-referenced physical fitness testing and assessment for youngsters with disabilities.
David B. Pyne, Matt Spencer and Iñigo Mujika
One of the challenges for sports scientists working in football is to balance the needs for routine fitness testing with daily fatigue and well-being monitoring to best manage the physical preparation of players. In this commentary, the authors examine contemporary issues of fitness testing in football to identify ways of improving the value of routine testing and monitoring. A testing program must be well planned and organized to ensure that the results are useful. Different tests can be employed for younger and older players. A rigorous approach to analysis and interpretation of results is desirable, and database management must address both short- and long-term requirements of players, staff, and programs.
Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short
In order to enhance the physical fitness development of individuals with selected handicapping conditions. Winnick and Short (1984b) published a manual which presented the Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test and training program. This article presents criteria and supporting technical information pertaining to the selection of test items.
Joseph P. Winnick
Health-related criterion-referenced physical fitness has developed into an important domain for all youngsters in American schools. Although considered important for youngsters with or without disabilities, much less attention has been given to measuring and assessing health-related physical fitness of youngsters with disabilities. The Brockport Physical Fitness Test (BPFT) was developed as a healthrelated criterion- referenced test of fitness as a part of a federal grant entitled Project Target: Criterion-Referenced Physical Fitness Standards for Adolescents with Disabilities. This special issue of the Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) presents the conceptual framework for the BPFT and the technical information used as a basis for the selection of test items and standards associated with the test. Technical information is presented in separate articles covering aerobic functioning, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility/range of motion. This first article introduces the reader to health-related fitness testing, Project Target, the BPFT, the general organization of information in this issue, and key contributors to Project Target and the development of the BPFT.
Koen A.P.M. Lemmink, Kemper Han, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Piet Rispens and Martin Stevens
Several items of the Groningen Fitness Test for the Elderly (GFE) were tested. The GFE tests were administered twice, with 1 week between sessions. The participants were 458 independently living adults >55 years of age. For most tests, there was reasonable agreement between sessions, indicating absolute objectivity and stability, but results on the block-transfer test revealed a learning effect. Mean scores on the balance-board and sit-and-reach tests showed significant improvement, whereas grip-strength results deteriorated significantly. All tests satisfied the criteria for relative reliability. In conclusion, absolute and relative reliability of the tests of the GFE were satisfactory. If multiple applications of the GFE are planned for the same group of participants, 1 or more practice trials should be executed for the block-transfer test to avoid a learning effect. A standard warm-up protocol is recommended for the sit-and-reach test. Participants should be strongly encouraged to give a maximum effort on the strength tests.
Sharon Ann Plowman
This paper analyzes the determination of the criterion referenced standards for the neuromuscular physical fitness items (sit-ups, sit-and-reach, and pullups) typically included in health related physical fitness test batteries for children and adolescents. Criterion referenced standards should be linked to some specific status on a health criterion that represents an absolute desirable level of that characteristic. Three techniques used to determine and/or validate criterion referenced standards are discussed: the use of empirical data with an established criterion test, the use of empirical data with instructed versus uninstructed groups, and the use of normative data and expert judgment. It is concluded that the existing criterion referenced standards have been derived exclusively from normative data and expert opinion. It remains unknown as to the meaning of these standards in relation to desirable and absolute levels of health.
Emerson Franchini, Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Urszula Szmatlan-Gabrys, Tomasz Gabrys and Michal Garnys
This study investigated the energy system contributions of judo athletes to the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT).
Fourteen male judo athletes performed the SJFT, which comprised three periods of judo activity (A = 15 s, B and C = 30 s) interspersed with 10 s rest intervals. During this test, one athlete threw two others positioned 6 m from each other using the ippon-seoi-nage technique. The fractions of the aerobic, anaerobic alactic and anaerobic lactic systems were calculated based on oxygen uptake, the fast component of excess postexercise oxygen uptake, and changes in net blood lactate, respectively. The contribution of the three energy systems was compared using a repeated measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test. Compound symmetry, or sphericity, was determined by Mauchly’s test. A level of significance of 5% (P < .05) was adopted in all analyses.
The alactic energy system presented a higher (F = 20.9; P < .001; power observed = 1.0) contribution (86.8 ± 23.6 kJ; 42.3 ± 5.9%) during the test when compared with both aerobic (57.1 ± 11.3 kJ; 28.2 ± 2.9%) and lactic (58.9 ± 12.1 kJ; 29.5 ± 6.2%) energy systems (P < .001 for both comparisons).
The higher alactic contribution seems to be a consequence of the high-intensity efforts performed during the test, and its intermittent nature. Thus, when using the SJFT, coaches are evaluating mainly their athletes’ anaerobic alactic system, which can be considered to be the most predominant system contributing to the actions (techniques) performed in the match.