The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of high school students toward fitness testing. An instrument containing 18 items and four factors measuring student’s attitudes toward fitness testing: cognitive, affect-enjoyment, affect-feelings, and affect-teacher was completed by 524 boys and 675 girls (N = 1199). MANOVA indicated significant differences among the dependent variables for grade and gender. A stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated affect-feelings then affect-enjoyment as variables that predicted these differences. Follow-up tests indicated that gender, and not grade, was the cause of the significant affect-feelings differences. MANOVA for fitness test types and the follow-up DFA indicated that students who completed the FitnessGram test had significantly higher cognitive attitudes than those who completed the President’s Challenge. The results suggest that student gender and the type of fitness test impact and lead to differences in attitudes.
Kevin Mercier and Stephen Silverman
Koen A.P.M. Lemmink, Kemper Han, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Piet Rispens and Martin Stevens
Several items of the Groningen Fitness Test for the Elderly (GFE) were tested. The GFE tests were administered twice, with 1 week between sessions. The participants were 458 independently living adults >55 years of age. For most tests, there was reasonable agreement between sessions, indicating absolute objectivity and stability, but results on the block-transfer test revealed a learning effect. Mean scores on the balance-board and sit-and-reach tests showed significant improvement, whereas grip-strength results deteriorated significantly. All tests satisfied the criteria for relative reliability. In conclusion, absolute and relative reliability of the tests of the GFE were satisfactory. If multiple applications of the GFE are planned for the same group of participants, 1 or more practice trials should be executed for the block-transfer test to avoid a learning effect. A standard warm-up protocol is recommended for the sit-and-reach test. Participants should be strongly encouraged to give a maximum effort on the strength tests.
Timo Tapio Jaakkola, Arja Sääkslahti, Sami Yli-Piipari, Mika Manninen, Anthony Watt and Jarmo Liukkonen
The purpose of the study was to analyze students’ motivation in relation to their participation in fitness testing classes. Participants were 134 Finnish Grade 5 and 8 students. Students completed the contextual motivation and perceived physical competence scales before the fitness testing class and the situational motivation questionnaire immediately after the class. During the fitness test class, abdominal muscle endurance was measured by curl-up test, lower body explosive strength and locomotor skills by the five leaps test, and speed and agility by the Figure 8 running test. For the fitness testing class, students reported higher scores for intrinsic motivation, identified motivation, and amotivation than in their general physical education program. The result of the path analysis showed physical fitness was positively related to perceived physical competence. In addition, perceived competence was found to be a positive predictor of situational intrinsic motivation, but not of other forms of situational motivation. Significant path coefficients in the model ranged from −.15 to .26.
Alex Garn and Haichun Sun
The use of fitness testing is a practical means for measuring components of health-related fitness, but there is currently substantial debate over the motivating effects of these tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the cross-fertilization of achievement and friendship goal profiles for early adolescents involved in the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Participants were 214 middle school students who reported their achievement goals, social goals, and preparation effort toward a PACER test. Performance was also examined. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the six-factor approach–avoidance model. Cluster analysis highlighted three distinct profiles. The high-goals profile group reported significantly higher amounts of effort put forth in preparation for the PACER test. Our findings suggest that the cross-fertilization of approach and avoidance achievement and social goals can provide important information about effort and performance on fitness testing in middle school physical education.
Roy J. Shephard
Traditional approaches to exercise prescription have included a preliminary medical screening followed by exercise tests of varying sophistication. To maximize population involvement, qualified fitness and exercise professionals (QFEPs) have used a self-administered screening questionnaire (the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, PAR-Q) and a simple measure of aerobic performance (the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test, CAFT). However, problems have arisen in applying the original protocol to those with chronic disease. Recent developments have addressed these issues.
Evolution of the PAR-Q and CAFT protocol is reviewed from their origins in 1974 to the current electronic decision tree model of exercise screening and prescription.
About a fifth of apparently healthy adults responded positively to the original PAR-Q instrument, thus requiring an often unwarranted referral to a physician. Minor changes of wording did not overcome this problem. However, a consensus process has now developed an electronic decision tree for stratification of exercise risk not only for healthy individuals, but also for those with various types of chronic disease.
The new approach to clearance greatly reduces physician referrals and extends the role of QFEPs. The availability of effective screening and simple fitness testing should contribute to the goal of maximizing physical activity in the entire population.
Brendan T. O’Keeffe, Alan E. Donnelly and Ciaran MacDonncha
test coordinator and administrator; the physical education teacher coordinates the test battery and fitness tests are administered by trained senior students; or finally, peer testing, where students measure each other’s fitness. Given the greater degree of variability in secondary school settings, and
Han C.G. Kemper and Willem Van Mechelen
The purpose of this article is to clarify the scientific basis of physical fitness assessment in children and to review the European efforts to develop a EUROFIT fitness test battery for the youth in the countries of the Council of Europe. The development of EUROFIT is based on the efforts made in the United States in the 1950s and in Europe in the 1980s. Physical fitness measurement is not identical to physiological measurement: The EUROFIT tests are aimed at measuring abilities rather than skills. Correlations between physical fitness tests and physiological laboratory tests show varying results and, therefore, need to be continued. Reliability of fitness tests needs to be continually studied. Because of the multipurposes of physical fitness testing, EUROFIT norm- and criterion-referenced scales for EUROFIT have to be developed. Examples of scaling methods are given. Implementation of the EUROFIT fitness tests for educational purposes is urgently needed.
Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short
In this manuscript, the conceptual framework for the Brockport Physical Fitness Test (BPFT) is presented. The framework provides the basis for the selection of test items and standards to assess health-related physical fitness of youngsters with disabilities. The framework defines and describes the relationships among health, physical activity, and health-related physical fitness and presents the process used for personalizing health-related criterion-referenced physical fitness testing and assessment for youngsters with disabilities.
David B. Pyne, Matt Spencer and Iñigo Mujika
One of the challenges for sports scientists working in football is to balance the needs for routine fitness testing with daily fatigue and well-being monitoring to best manage the physical preparation of players. In this commentary, the authors examine contemporary issues of fitness testing in football to identify ways of improving the value of routine testing and monitoring. A testing program must be well planned and organized to ensure that the results are useful. Different tests can be employed for younger and older players. A rigorous approach to analysis and interpretation of results is desirable, and database management must address both short- and long-term requirements of players, staff, and programs.
Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short
In order to enhance the physical fitness development of individuals with selected handicapping conditions. Winnick and Short (1984b) published a manual which presented the Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test and training program. This article presents criteria and supporting technical information pertaining to the selection of test items.