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Pauliina Husu, Jaana Suni, Matti Pasanen and Seppo Miilunpalo

Background:

Low levels of physical activity (PA) and poor fitness tend to predict a decline in mobility. The current study investigated whether PA modifies the predictive value of health-related fitness (HRF) tests on difficulty in walking 2 km (WD).

Methods:

PA was assessed by self-reported questionnaires in 1990 and 1996. Subjects age 55 to 69 years and free of self-reported WD participated in assessment of HRF in 1996. Occurrence of WD was assessed by questionnaire in 2002 (n = 537).

Results:

There were no statistically significant interactions between PA and HRF tests; thus, PA and HRF were both independent predictors of WD. Regardless of the PA level, the subjects in the poorest performing third in each HRF test had higher risk of WD than the subjects in the best performing third.

Conclusions:

PA and HRF seemed to be independent predictors of WD, although the association of PA with WD was weaker than the association of HRF. Thus, PA did not modify the predictive value of HRF on WD.

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Michael Hodges, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Chong Lee and Ja Youn Kwon

Students of all ages have documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). However, improving students HRFK may require a change in teacher practices and professional development (PD).

Purpose:

This study, framed by Guskey’s Model of Teacher Change (GMTC; Guskey, 2002), sought to assist teachers’ HRFK instruction as part of their physical education curriculum and practices. Initially, researchers examined: (a) teachers’ perceptions of health-related fitness knowledge instruction, followed by, (b) selected teachers’ perceptions of the professional development (PD) methods and the approach to teaching HRFK.

Method:

Semistructured interviews were conducted among elementary physical education teachers’ (N = 9) in one suburban school district. A randomly selected smaller group of teachers (n = 5), had PD on Knowledge in Action Lesson Segments (KIALS), an approach to teaching HRFK. Teachers were asked to implement KIALS into their fifth grade physical education classes and interviewed two additional times.

Results:

Three themes emerged from the data: (a) HRFK is critical but I can’t get to it; (b) If you show it, they will implement it; and (c) Knowledge in Action gets the job done.

Conclusion:

PD procedures in this study and KIALS were seen as favorable. Results paralleled GMTC principles, as researchers confirmed quality PD, and observations of positive student outcomes further reinforced teachers’ beliefs. Teachers also expressed a willingness to continue using KIALS after the completion of this study, concluding achievement of the final fourth principal of the change process. Findings suggested that KIALS, if presented with similar PD will be well-received by teachers supporting their efforts to improve student HRFK outcomes.

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Michael Wilkinson, Damon Leedale-Brown and Edward M. Winter

Purpose:

We examined the reproducibility of performance and physiological responses on a squash-specific incremental test.

Methods:

Eight trained squash players habituated to procedures with two prior visits performed an incremental squash test to volitional exhaustion on two occasions 7 days apart. Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake ( Vo2) and heart rate were determined continuously using a portable telemetric system. Blood lactate concentration at the end of 4-min stages was assessed to determine lactate threshold. Once threshold was determined, test speed was increased every minute until volitional exhaustion for assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max), maximum heart rate (HRmax), and performance time. Economy was taken as the 60-s mean of Vo2 in the final minute of the fourth stage (below lactate threshold for all participants). Typical error of measurement (TEM) with associated 90% confidence intervals, limits of agreement, paired sample t tests, and least products regression were used to assess the reproducibility of scores.

Results:

Performance time (TEM 27 s, 4%, 90% CI 19 to 49 s) Vo2max (TEM 2.4 mL·kg−1·min−1, 4.7%, 90% CI 1.7 to 4.3 mL·kg−1·min−1), maximum heart rate (TEM 2 beats·min−1, 1.3%, 90% CI 2 to 4 beats·min−1), and economy (TEM 1.6 mL·kg−1·min−1, 4.1%, 90% CI 1.1 to 2.8 mL·kg−1·min−1) were reproducible.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that endurance performance and physiological responses to a squash-specific fitness test are reproducible.

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José M. Cancela, M Helena Vila Suárez,, Jamine Vasconcelos, Ana Lima and Carlos Ayán

This study evaluates the impact of Brain Gym (BG) training in active older adults. Eighty-five participants were assigned to four training groups: BG (n = 18), BG plus water-based exercise (n = 18), land-based exercise (n = 30), and land plus water-based exercise (n = 19). The effects of the programs on the attention and memory functions were assessed by means of the symbol digit modality test. The two-min step and the eight-foot up-and-go tests were used to evaluate their impact on fitness level. No program had a significant influence on the participant’s cognitive performance, while different effects on the sample’ fitness levels were observed. These findings suggest that the effects of BG on the cognitive performance and fitness level of active older adults are similar to those obtained after the practice of a traditional exercise program. Whether BG is performed in isolation or combined with other exercise programs seems to have no influence on such effects.

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Anneke G. van der Niet, Joanne Smith, Jaap Oosterlaan, Erik J.A. Scherder, Esther Hartman and Chris Visscher

The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program including both aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities on children’s physical fitness and executive functions. Children from 3 primary schools (aged 8–12 years) were recruited. A quasi-experimental design was used. Children in the intervention group (n = 53; 19 boys, 34 girls) participated in a 22-week physical activity program for 30 min during lunch recess, twice a week. Children in the control group (n = 52; 32 boys, 20 girls) followed their normal lunch routine. Aerobic fitness, speed and agility, and muscle strength were assessed using the Eurofit test battery. Executive functions were assessed using tasks measuring inhibition (Stroop test), working memory (Visual Memory Span test, Digit Span test), cognitive flexibility (Trailmaking test), and planning (Tower of London). Children in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than children in the control group on the Stroop test and Digit Span test, reflecting enhanced inhibition and verbal working memory skills, respectively. No differences were found on any of the physical fitness variables. A physical activity program including aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities can enhance aspects of executive functioning in primary school children.

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Ryan M. Hulteen, Lisa M. Barnett, Philip J. Morgan, Leah E. Robinson, Christian J. Barton, Brian H. Wrotniak and David R. Lubans

skills. Specifically, in a group of 16-year-old participants, motor competence explained 11% of variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ( Barnett et al., 2011 ). Another important variable to consider is health-related fitness. The positive association between health-related fitness and motor

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Michael Wilkinson, Damon Leedale-Brown and Edward M. Winter

Purpose:

This study examined the validity of a squash-specific test designed to assess endurance capability and aerobic power.

Methods:

Eight squash players and eight runners performed, in a counterbalanced order, incremental treadmill (TT) and squash-specific (ST) tests to volitional exhaustion. Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake was determined by a portable analyzer and heart rate was assessed telemetrically. Time to exhaustion was recorded.

Results:

Independent t tests revealed longer time to exhaustion for squash players on the ST than runners (775 ± 103 vs. 607 ± 81 s; P = .003) but no difference between squash players and runners in maximal oxygen uptake ( Vo2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax). Runners exercised longer on the TT (521 ± 135 vs. 343 ± 115 s; P = .01) and achieved higher Vo2max than squash players (58.6 ± 7.5 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .03), with no group difference in HRmax. Paired t tests showed squash players achieved higher Vo2max on the ST than the TT (52.2 ± 7.1 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .02). The Vo2max and HRmax of runners did not differ between tests, nor did the HRmax of squash players. ST and TT Vo2max correlated highly in squash players and runners (r = .94, P < .001; r = .88, P = .003).

Conclusions:

The ST discriminated endurance performance between squash players and runners and elicited higher Vo2max in squash players than a nonspecifc test. The results suggest that the ST is a valid assessment of Vo2max and endurance capability in squash players.

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Bhanu Sharma and Brian W. Timmons

January 2019. Results To best capture the state of the science, we present findings as they related to 1 of 3 exercise medicine categories, namely: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and neuromotor control, and obesity (as an outcome of brain injury or risk factor for poor post-TBI outcome

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Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan and Ben Rattray

would observe smaller decrements in performance on a physical endurance test following a prolonged mental exertion task. We further investigated the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on tolerance to mental fatigue, given the high level of cardiorespiratory fitness observed in the participants of

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Ian M. Greenlund, Piersan E. Suriano, Steven J. Elmer, Jason R. Carter and John J. Durocher

pressure. 15 Aerobic fitness was estimated via a Rockport Walk test 16 on a treadmill at 1% grade within the laboratory following completion of a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology). Following the orientation session, participants reported to the