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Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves and Ken Hodge

mindfulness-based construct of psychological flexibility ( Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 2011 ) has been proposed as one such factor ( Butryn, Arigo, Raggio, Kaufman, Kerrigan, & Forman, 2015 ). Psychological flexibility is defined as “the ability to contact the present moment more fully as a conscious human

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William A. Sands, Jeni R. McNeal, Michael H. Stone, G. Gregory Haff and Ann M. Kinser

Serious stretching in many sports involves discomfort and is often an early ceiling on improvements.


To continue investigation of the use of vibration to enhance acute range of motion while assessing the influence of vibration and stretching on pressure-to-pain threshold perception.


Ten young male gymnasts were assessed for split range of motion. One side split was randomly assigned as the experimental condition, and the other side split was assigned as the control. Both side splits were performed on a vibration device; the experimental condition had the device turned on and the control condition was performed with the device turned off. In addition, the athletes were assessed for pressure-to-pain transition using an algometer on the biceps femoris (stretched muscle) and vastus lateralis (nonstretched muscle) bilaterally.


Pre-post difference scores between the vibrated split (most improved) and the nonvibrated split were statistically different (P = .001, 95% confidence interval of the difference 2.3 to 5.8 cm). Following the stretching protocol, the force values for the pressure-to-pain threshold comparing the vibrated and nonvibrated biceps femoris muscle were not statistically different. The nonstretched vastus lateralis muscle also showed no statistical difference in pressure-to-pain threshold between the vibration and nonvibration conditions.


This study showed that vibration improved split range of motion over stretching alone, but did not show a difference in pressure-to-pain perception in either the stretched or nonstretched muscles.

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Whitney Williams and Noelle M. Selkow

Flexibility is important in both the prevention and the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. 1 Range of motion (ROM) is a measurement of flexibility determined by joint structure, congruency, capsuloligamentous structures, and muscles. Reduced joint ROM may result from a plethora of factors

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes and Ludovic Seifert

–temporal parameters without performance outcome deterioration ( Seifert et al., 2013 ). Therefore, although behavior could be characterized by stable and reproducible coordination patterns against perturbations, it is not stereotyped and rigid, but flexible and adaptive ( Warren, 2006 ). Adaptive behavior does not

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Lütfiye Akkurt, İpek Alemdaroğlu Gürbüz, Ayşe Karaduman and Öznur Tunca Yilmaz

, respiratory failure, and a decrease in life span ( 29 ). Flexibility is defined as a joint’s range of motion and can be limited by muscles, ligaments, tendons, and/or bone structures. It is influenced by various factors, such as hereditary differences in joint structures, the elasticity of connective tissues

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett and Adam B. Rosen

flexibility, leg length discrepancy, gender, and strength differences between agonist and antagonist muscles of the lower limb. 9 However, considering the linked system of the lower limb, further alignment measures may be necessary to understand contributing factors to PT. In addition, these studies fail to

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Jeffrey G. Williams, Hannah I. Gard, Jeana M. Gregory, Amy Gibson and Jennifer Austin

, previous injury, strength imbalances, biomechanics, and flexibility. 4 , 5 The most widely accepted cause for hamstring injury, though, is muscular inflexibility, especially in combination with previous injury. 5 Numerous preventive and treatment measures have been studied including increasing

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Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts and Kenneth E. Games

Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in sports and cause significant loss of competition and training time. 1 Hamstring injuries also affect the quality of life of athletes. 1 Muscle injury and inadequate flexibility have been strongly correlated, especially with respect to the hamstring

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Sarah P. Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P. Kraszewski, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M. Hillstrom and Howard J. Hillstrom

reduced shock attenuation. In order to fully understand the role of foot type in lower extremity injury and pathology, a more robust model is needed that not only includes variables of structure, flexibility, and function, but also accounts for relationships between the 3 factors. Previous research has