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Whitney Williams and Noelle M. Selkow

Flexibility is important in both the prevention and the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. 1 Range of motion (ROM) is a measurement of flexibility determined by joint structure, congruency, capsuloligamentous structures, and muscles. Reduced joint ROM may result from a plethora of factors

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Bethany L. Anderson, Rod A. Harter, and James L. Farnsworth II

improve performance through increasing arterial dilation, 1 , 2 reducing fascial restrictions, 6 , 7 and enhancing muscle elasticity and neurological feedback. 2 In efforts to simultaneously improve flexibility and athletic performance, researchers have studied foam rolling combined with static

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Nathan F. Johnson, Chloe Hutchinson, Kaitlyn Hargett, Kyle Kosik, and Phillip Gribble

musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and/or cardiopulmonary systems, and general physical inactivity. 3 Limitations in balance and muscular strength also contribute to falls in older adults. 4 Diminished flexibility, a clinical term used to describe the extensibility of contractile and noncontractile tissues

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett, and Adam B. Rosen

flexibility, leg length discrepancy, gender, and strength differences between agonist and antagonist muscles of the lower limb. 9 However, considering the linked system of the lower limb, further alignment measures may be necessary to understand contributing factors to PT. In addition, these studies fail to

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William A. Sands, Jeni R. McNeal, Michael H. Stone, G. Gregory Haff, and Ann M. Kinser

Serious stretching in many sports involves discomfort and is often an early ceiling on improvements.


To continue investigation of the use of vibration to enhance acute range of motion while assessing the influence of vibration and stretching on pressure-to-pain threshold perception.


Ten young male gymnasts were assessed for split range of motion. One side split was randomly assigned as the experimental condition, and the other side split was assigned as the control. Both side splits were performed on a vibration device; the experimental condition had the device turned on and the control condition was performed with the device turned off. In addition, the athletes were assessed for pressure-to-pain transition using an algometer on the biceps femoris (stretched muscle) and vastus lateralis (nonstretched muscle) bilaterally.


Pre-post difference scores between the vibrated split (most improved) and the nonvibrated split were statistically different (P = .001, 95% confidence interval of the difference 2.3 to 5.8 cm). Following the stretching protocol, the force values for the pressure-to-pain threshold comparing the vibrated and nonvibrated biceps femoris muscle were not statistically different. The nonstretched vastus lateralis muscle also showed no statistical difference in pressure-to-pain threshold between the vibration and nonvibration conditions.


This study showed that vibration improved split range of motion over stretching alone, but did not show a difference in pressure-to-pain perception in either the stretched or nonstretched muscles.

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Gemma V. Espí-López, Pilar Serra-Añó, David Cobo-Pascual, Manuel Zarzoso, Luis Suso-Martí, Ferran Cuenca-Martínez, and Marta Inglés

use of neuromuscular training. 8 – 10 Aside from therapeutic exercise, other strategies have been suggested to improve knee stability and flexibility, and reduce the injury rate. Other relevant alternatives include the use of elastic taping. Kinesio Taping (KT) is a very widely used technique and one

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Genki Hatano, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Shingo Matsuo, Satoshi Kataura, Kazuaki Yokoi, Taizan Fukaya, Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Yuji Asai, and Masahiro Iwata

to the hamstring muscles usually involve rapid acceleration and fast running. The eccentric contraction of the hamstrings to decelerate knee extension during the late swing phase of running activities is associated with such injuries. 2 , 3 Lack of hamstring flexibility may also result in major

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Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Oksana Chernykh, and Song-Young Park

Fibromyalgia (FM) is an idiopathic disease affecting approximately 3% of the world population, primarily diagnosed in middle-aged women ( Queiroz, 2013 ). Although FM is mainly characterized by chronic pain and fatigue, reduced muscular strength and flexibility are common symptoms associated with

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Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves, and Ken Hodge

mindfulness-based construct of psychological flexibility ( Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 2011 ) has been proposed as one such factor ( Butryn, Arigo, Raggio, Kaufman, Kerrigan, & Forman, 2015 ). Psychological flexibility is defined as “the ability to contact the present moment more fully as a conscious human