via DCA Vantage analyzer (Siemens, Boston, MA). Vascular Function Vascular function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). This technique incorporates temporary distal occlusion of a limb to elicit a dilatory response ( Celermajer et al., 1992 ). This experiment used the brachial artery for
Nicholas A. Koemel, Christina M. Sciarrillo, Katherine B. Bode, Madison D. Dixon, Edralin A. Lucas, Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins, and Sam R. Emerson
Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka, and Daroonwan Suksom
, 2004 ). Vascular dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease, which is characterized by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation ( Roberts & Porter, 2013 ) and stiffening of central arteries ( Aso et al., 2003 ). Indeed, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a
Ali M. McManus, Nathan R. Sletten, and Daniel J. Green
-intensity exercise has also been noted in adults ( 3 , 9 ), although in adolescents the increase in baseline diameter was similar following moderate- and high-intensity exercise ( 10 ). In both adults and adolescents, there is evidence of a biphasic, intensity-dependent response in flow-mediated dilation (FMD), with
Austin T. Robinson, Adriana Mazzuco, Ahmad S. Sabbahi, Audrey Borghi-Silva, and Shane A. Phillips
by measures of central BP and arterial stiffness and then brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The acute leg press resistance exercise bout was then performed, and CV measures were repeated in the same sequence after heart rate (HR) was reduced to near resting levels (≤10 bpm). A schematic
Catrine Tudor-Locke, John M. Schuna Jr, Damon L. Swift, Amber T. Dragg, Allison B. Davis, Corby K. Martin, William D. Johnson, and Timothy S. Church
variables included systolic and diastolic blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose and insulin, flow-mediated dilation, gait speed, and ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL) determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods The study design and methods
Napasakorn Chuensiri, Hirofumi Tanaka, and Daroonwan Suksom
To determine the acute effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on vascular function.
Lean (n = 18, BMI = 17.1 ± 0.7) and obese (n = 17, BMI = 25.4 ± 0.8) prepubescent boys aged 10.2 ± 0.2 years were studied. HIIE consisted of 8 sets of 20 s of cycle ergometry at 100, 130, and 170% of VO2peak alternating with 10 s of rests.
The obese group had higher (p < .05) body mass, BMI, body fat percentage, waist-hip ratio than the lean group. Carotid artery wall thickness and arterial stiffness as assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were greater in the obese than in the lean group (p < .05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was not different between the groups. Total energy expenditure increased gradually as the exercise intensity increased in both groups (p < .05). The obese group had significantly greater total energy expenditure in all three HIIE intensities than the lean group. FMD tended to be higher and baPWV lower as the exercise intensity increased in both groups. Only the HIIE at 170% demonstrated greater FMD compared with the baseline in both groups. baPWV decreased significantly after HIIE at 130 and 170% VO2peak in both groups.
Supramaximal HIIE can be a feasible exercise modality for improving vascular function in obese prepubescent boys. Future exercise intervention studies are warranted.
Kate Sanders, Carl M. Maresh, Kevin D. Ballard, Brent C. Creighton, J. Luke Pryor, William J. Kraemer, Jeff S. Volek, and Jeff M. Anderson
Compared with their physically active peers, overweight sedentary postmenopausal women demonstrate impaired vascular endothelial function (VEF), substantially increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Habitual exercise is associated with improved VEF and reduced CVD risk. The purpose of this study was to compare brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of VEF, in overweight, postmenopausal women who were physically active (EX: n = 17, BMI: 29.3 ± 3.11 kg/m2) or sedentary (CON: n = 8, BMI: 30.3 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Anthropomorphic measures were similar in both groups (P > .05). FMD was significantly greater in EX (10.24 ± 2.36%) versus CON (6.60 ± 2.18%) (P < .002). FMD was not significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (EX: r = .17, P = .52; CON: r = .20, P = .60) but was negatively associated with percent body fat in EX group (EX: r = -.48, P = .05; CON: r = .41, P = .31). These results are consistent with the positive effects of habitual exercise on VEF in overweight postmenopausal women.
Soo Hyun Park, Eun Sun Yoon, Yong Hee Lee, Chul-Ho Kim, Kanokwan Bunsawat, Kevin S. Heffernan, Bo Fernhall, and Sae Young Jae
We tested the hypothesis that an active video game following a high-fat meal would partially prevent the unfavorable effect of a high-fat meal on vascular function in overweight adolescents.
Twenty-four overweight adolescents were randomized to either a 60-minute active video game (AVG) group (n = 12) or seated rest (SR) as a control group (n = 12) after a high-fat meal. Blood parameters were measured, and vascular function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at baseline and 3 hours after a high-fat meal.
No significant interaction was found in any blood parameter. A high-fat meal significantly increased blood triglyceride and glucose concentrations in both groups in a similar manner. Brachial artery FMD significantly decreased in the SR group (13.8 ± 3.2% to 11.8 ± 2.5), but increased in the AVG group (11.4 ± 4.0% to 13.3 ± 3.5), with a significant interaction (P = .034).
These findings show that an active video game attenuated high-fat meal-induced endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that an active video game may have a cardioprotective effect on endothelial function in overweight adolescents when exposed to a high-fat meal.
Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin, and Jennifer Weggen
anti-inflammatory defense 28 , 41 – 44 and the downregulation of oxidant producing enzymes. 45 , 46 In contrast to previous studies examining prolonged sitting and vascular dysfunction, which have primarily implemented the flow mediated dilation technique, the current study utilized the PLM technique
Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa
shown that NO can influence autonomic control by increasing vagal and decreasing sympathetic activity ( Conlon, Collins, & Kidd, 1996 ; Hare et al., 1995 ; Zanzinger, Czachurski, & Seller, 1995 ). In fact, LIRET has been reported to improve brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, a marker of NO