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John Seifert, Joseph Harmon and Patty DeClercq

The purpose of this study was to compare fluid retention of carbohydrate plus protein, a carbohydrate-only, and water following 2.5% body weight (BW) loss. Thirteen subjects dehydrated to 2.5% of BW, then ingested a CHO (6%) plus protein drink (1.5%; CP), a 6% CHO drink, or water (WA) at a volume equal to BW loss during a 3-h recovery. Fluid retention was significantly greater for CP (88 ± 4.7%) than CHO (75 ± 14.6%), which was greater than WA (53 ± 16.1%). Serum and urine osmolalities were greater for CP (284.7 ± 5.0; 569.4 ± 291.4 mOsm/kg) than CHO (282.6 ± 5.2; 472.9 ± 291.5 mOsm/kg) which were greater than WA (280.6 ± 5.9, 303.7 ± 251.5 mOsm/kg). Results indicate that fluid retention for CP was 15% greater than CHO and 40% greater than WA. Water ingestion led to a dilution of the serum and resulted in only 53% fluid retention.

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A. Savoie and Jonathan Gosselin

, minimize urine production, optimize fluid retention, markedly increase plasma volume, and produce no or relatively insignificant side effects ( Goulet, 2009 , 2010 ). Posthyperhydration fluid retention and plasma volume augmentation have been shown to be significantly greater with salt

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Gérard E. Plante and Isabelle J. Dionne

The authors determined, through a meta-analytic approach, whether glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) enhances fluid retention and increases endurance performance (EP) significantly more than water-induced hyperhydration (WIH). Collectively, studies administered 23.9 ± 2.7 mL of fuid/kg body weight (BW) with 1.1 ± 0.2 g glycerol/kg BW, and hyperhydration was measured 136 ± 15 min after its onset. Compared with WIH, GIH increased fluid retention by 7.7 ± 2.8 mL/kg BW (P < 0.01; pooled effect size [PES]: 1.64 ± 0.80, P < 0.01, N = 14). The use of GIH was associated with an improvement in EP of 2.62% ± 1.60% (P = 0.047; PES: 0.35 ± 0.13, P = 0.014, N = 4). Unarguably, GIH significantly enhances fluid retention better than WIH. Because of the dearth of data, the effect of GIH on EP must be further investigated before more definitive conclusions can be drawn as to its ergogenic property.

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Mary Caitlin Stevenson Wilcoxson, Samantha Louise Johnson, Veronika Pribyslavska, James Mathew Green and Eric Kyle O’Neal

Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200 ± 300 ml of sweat loss (3.1 ± 0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/postbreakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 ml (low; L), 2,065/2,593 ml (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H). Voids were collected in separate containers. Increased urine output resulted in no differences (p > .05) in absolute mean fluid retention for waking or first postbreakfast voids. Night void averages excluding the first void postrun (1.025 ± 0.008; 1.013 ± 0.008; 1.006 ± 0.003), first morning (1.024 ± 0.004; 1.015 ± 0.005; 1.014 ± 0.005), and postbreakfast (1.022 ± 0.007; 1.014 ± 0.007; 1.008 ± 0.003) USG were higher (p < .05) for L versus M and H respectively and more clearly differentiated fluid intake volume between L and M than color or thirst sensation. Waking (r = -0.66) and postbreakfast (r = -0.71) USG were both significantly correlated (p < .001) with fluid replacement percentage, but not absolute fluid retention. Fluid intake M was reported as most similar to normal consumption (5.6 ± 1.0 on 0–10 scale) after breakfast and equaled 122 ± 16% of sweat losses. Retention data suggests consumption above this level is not warranted or actually practiced by most runners drinking ad libitum, but that periodic prerun USG assessment may be useful for coaches to detect runners that habitually consume low levels of fluids between training bouts in warm seasons.

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Gethin H. Evans, Jennifer Miller, Sophie Whiteley and Lewis J. James

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of water and a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution on postexercise rehydration when a standard meal was consumed during rehydration. Eight healthy participants took part in two experimental trials during which they lost 1.5 ± 0.4% of initial body mass via intermittent exercise in the heat. Participants then rehydrated over a 60-min period with water or a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution in a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss during exercise. In addition, a standard meal was ingested during this time which was equivalent to 30% of participants predicted daily energy expenditure. Urine samples were collected before and after exercise and for 3 hr after rehydration. Cumulative urine volume (981 ± 458 ml and 577 ± 345 mL; p = .035) was greater, while percentage fluid retained (50 ± 20% and 70 ± 21%; p = .017) was lower during the water compared with the NaCl trial respectively. A high degree of variability in results was observed with one participant producing 28% more urine and others ranging from 18–83% reduction in urine output during the NaCl trial. The results of this study suggest that after exercise induced dehydration, the ingestion of a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution leads to greater fluid retention compared with water, even when a meal is consumed postexercise. Furthermore, ingestion of plain water may be effective for maintenance of fluid balance when food is consumed in the rehydration period.

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Liam Sayer, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Christopher Irwin, Danielle McCartney, Gregory R. Cox, Stuart D.R. Galloway and Ben Desbrow

to euhydration ( Mitchell et al., 1994 ; Robertson, 1974 ). Hence, there is considerable scientific interest in understanding factors that enhance fluid retention and assist with rehydration after exercise. When consumed without food and matched for volume, nutrient-dense beverages (e.g., milk and

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Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez and Stuart D.R. Galloway

ingested beverages are key to influencing subsequent urine production, and thus fluid retention ( Maughan et al., 2016 ). Ingested fluids with a high-energy content (such as milk and fruit juice), as well as those with high-electrolyte content (such as milk, fruit juice, and oral rehydration solution

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Eric D.B. Goulet

Glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) has been shown to improve fluid retention and endurance performance compared with water-induced hyperhydration. The goal of this article is to report on what is known and unknown about how glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions (GCHSs) are processed at the stomach and intestine level, propose strategies to improve the efficacy of GIH, and provide research questions for future studies. Through statistical analyses, it is demonstrated that the effectiveness of GCHSs in increasing fluid retention is maximized when fluid ingestion is in the upper range of what is normally administered by studies (~26 ml/kg body weight) and the duration of the protocol is no longer than the time it takes for the glycerol-fluid load to be totally or nearly completely integrated inside the body. The rate of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of GCHSs is unknown. However, based on an analysis of indirect evidence obtained from human studies, it is proposed that most glycerol (~80 g) and fluid (~1,700 ml) ingested during a typical GIH protocol can be integrated inside the body within 60–90 min. Whether the stress associated with competition could alter these figures is unknown. Research in rats indicates that combining glycerol with glucose at a 3:1 ratio accelerates intestinal absorption of both glycerol and water, thereby potentially improving the efficacy of GIH. Human studies must be conducted to determine how GCHSs are processed by the gastrointestinal system and whether adding glucose to GCHSs could improve the technique’s efficacy.

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Timothy D. Noakes

The hyponatremia of exercise may exist in symptomatic and asymptomatic forms. Symptomatic hyponatremia is usually characterized by severe alterations in cerebral function including coma and grand ma1 seizures; it develops especially in less competitive athletes who have maintained high rates of fluid intake during endurance events lasting at least 5 hours. The hyponatremia becomes symptomatic when the volume of excess fluid retained exceeds 2 to 3 liters. The etiology of the condition is unknown. Possibly as many as three or more pathologies (abnormal fluid retention possibly due to inappropriate ADH secretion, abnormal regulation of the extracellular fluid volume, translocation of sodium into a "third space") must be present for symptomatic hyponatremia to develop. The avoidance of overhydration would appear to be the only certain way that susceptible individuals can prevent symptomatic hyponatremia. Sodium chloride containing solutions ingested in physiologically significant concentrations would likely prevent a possible "third space" effect.

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Ben Desbrow, Danielle Cecchin, Ashleigh Jones, Gary Grant, Chris Irwin and Michael Leveritt

The addition of 25 mmol·L−1 sodium to low alcohol (2.3% ABV) beer has been shown to enhance post exercise fluid retention compared with full strength (4.8% ABV) beer with and without electrolyte modification. This investigation explored the effect of further manipulations to the alcohol and sodium content of beer on fluid restoration following exercise. Twelve male volunteers lost 2.03 ± 0.19% body mass (mean ± SD) using cycling-based exercise. Participants were then randomly allocated a different beer to consume on four separate occasions. Drinks included low alcohol beer with 25 mmol·L−1 of added sodium [LightBeer+25], low alcohol beer with 50 mmol·L−1 of added sodium [LightBeer+50], midstrength beer (3.5% ABV) [Mid] or midstrength beer with 25 mmolL−1 of added sodium [Mid+25]. Total drink volumes in each trial were equivalent to 150% of body mass loss during exercise, consumed over a 1h period. Body mass, urine samples and regulatory hormones were obtained before and 4 hr after beverage consumption. Total urine output was significantly lower in the LightBeer+50 trial (1450 ± 183 ml) compared with the LightBeer+25 (1796 ± 284 ml), Mid+25 (1786 ± 373 ml) and Mid (1986 ± 304 ml) trials (allp < .05). This resulted in significantly higher net body mass following the LightBeer+50 trial (-0.97 ± 0.17kg) compared with all other beverages (LightBeer+25 (-1.30 ± 0.24 kg), Mid+25 (-1.38 ± 0.33 kg) and Mid (-1.58 ± 0.29 kg), all p < .05). No significant changes to aldosterone or vasopressin were associated with different drink treatments. The electrolyte concentration of low alcohol beer appears to have more significant impact on post exercise fluid retention than small changes in alcohol content.