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The Path to Translating Focus of Attention Research into Canadian Physiotherapy, Part 2: Physiotherapist Interviews Reveal Impacting Factors and Barriers to Focus of Attention Use

Julia Hussien, Lauren Gignac, Lauren Shearer, and Diane M. Ste-Marie

The Path to Translating Focus of Attention Research into Physiotherapy—Part 2 For over two decades, researchers have explored how manipulating a person’s focus of attention impacts motor performance and learning (see Wulf, 2013 for a review and Chua et al., 2021 for a recent meta-analysis). The

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Direction and Relevance of the Focus of Attention in Dart Throwing With and Without Concurrent Visual Feedback

David Sherwood, Keith Lohse, and Alice Healy

Many research studies have shown the advantage of directing the focus of attention (FOA) externally as opposed to internally. However, it is not clear how the availability of concurrent visual feedback might impact attentional processes as the FOA is shifted between internal, external, relevant, and irrelevant sources of attention. The current experiment varied the FOA by asking the participants to judge joint angles (internal-relevant), respiration (internal-irrelevant), dart release angle (external-relevant), and tone loudness (external-irrelevant) at dart release in which task-intrinsic concurrent visual feedback was available or not. Spatial errors and trial-to-trial variability in the outcome were reduced when vision was available. Spatial errors were greater during internal judgments compared with external judgments particularly when vision was not available and when making judgments about task-relevant factors. A focus on irrelevant factors generally did not affect performance compared with relevant factors. These findings suggest that availability of concurrent visual feedback modulates focus of attention effects in motor control.

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The Path to Translating Focus of Attention Research Into Canadian Physiotherapy, Part 3: Designing a Workshop Through Consultation With Physiotherapists and Focus of Attention Researchers

Julia Hussien, Lauren Gignac, Lauren Shearer, and Diane M. Ste-Marie

Research involving a broad range of tasks and populations has demonstrated motor learning and performance benefits from instructions/feedback that encourage the adoption of an external focus of attention (external focus to be used herein), which directs the person’s focus to the effect of the

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The Path to Translating Focus of Attention Research Into Canadian Physiotherapy, Part 1: Physiotherapists’ Self-Reported Focus of Attention Use Via a Study-Specific Questionnaire

Julia Hussien and Diane Ste-Marie

learn or perform a motor skill, referred to as an external focus of attention (EFOA; Kim et al., 2017 ; Neumann, 2019 ; Wulf, 2013 ). In particular, an EFOA has been shown to be superior to that of directing a learner’s attention to the muscles or body parts to be used to execute the movement

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The Effects of an Associative, Dissociative, Internal, and External Focus of Attention on Running Economy

Mahin Aghdaei, Alireza Farsi, Maryam Khalaji, and Jared Porter

been defined as the amount of oxygen consumed ( V O ˙ 2 ) or heart rate level when running at a submaximal velocity ( Jones & Carter, 2000 ; Saunders et al., 2004 ). Interestingly, Masters and Ogles (1998 ) propose that using the equivalent of an internal or external focus of attention does not

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Postural Control Entropy Is Increased When Adopting an External Focus of Attention

Christopher K. Rhea, Jed A. Diekfuss, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother, and Louisa D. Raisbeck

; McNevin, Wulf, & Carlson, 2000 ; Wulf, 2013 ). Wulf, Höß, and Prinz ( 1998 ) defined attentional focus as either internal or external. An internal focus of attention is directed at the performer’s own body or own movements, whereas an external focus is directed at the effects a particular movement has on

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Considering a Holistic Focus of Attention as an Alternative to an External Focus

Kevin A. Becker, Ayana F. Georges, and Christopher A. Aiken

solution often suggested for this problem is utilizing an attentional focus that reduces the likelihood of conscious control. Over the last 20 years, most research in this area has studied the benefit of an external focus compared to an internal focus of attention. An internal focus of attention is

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The Effect of Large Visual Illusion and External Focus of Attention on Gaze Behavior and Learning of Dart Throw Skill

Somayeh Bahrami, Behrouz Abdoli, Alireza Farsi, Mahin Aghdaei, and Thomas Simpson

The OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning posits that enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and an external focus of attention are key motivational and attentional factors for effective motor performance and learning

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Further Evidence for an External Focus of Attention in Running: Looking at Specific Focus Instructions and Individual Differences

Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann, and Bernd Strauß

Attentional Focusing in Endurance Sports The direction of attentional focus is an essential determinant of performance among different kinds of sports (e.g., Wulf, 2013 ). In endurance sports, an external focus of attention can be defined as directing attention toward the environment. An internal

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Effects of Load and Focus of Attention on Mechanical Parameters During Bench-Press Throw in Resistance-Trained Men

Olaf Prieske, Vidar Andersen, Tom A. Moberg Johansen, and Atle H. Saeterbakken

, concentric action) compared with medium or slow lowering velocities. 13 In another study, Makaruk et al 14 examined the effect of focusing on a target ahead (ie, external focus of attention [EXT]) versus focusing on the arms (ie, internal focus of attention [INT]) on underhand and overhand shot-put performance