This follow-up study confirms our previous findings that the ER-α PvuII polymorphism (Pp) modulates the association between exercise and bone mass. The differences in bone properties of girls with consistently low physical activity (LLPA) and consistently high physical activity (HHPA) were evident only in those bearing the heterozygote ER-α genotype (Pp). In particular, areal bone mineral density of the total femur, bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density of the femoral neck, and bone mineral content and cortical thickness of the tibia shaft were significantly (p < .05) lower in the Pp girls with LLPA than in their HHPA counterparts. These findings might partly explain the genetic basis of human variation associated with exercise training.
Miia Suuriniemi, Harri Suominen, Anitta Mahonen, Markku Alén and Sulin Cheng
Meghann Lloyd, Travis J. Saunders, Emily Bremer and Mark S. Tremblay
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential long-term association of motor skill proficiency at 6 years of age and self-reported physical activity (PA) at age 26. Direct motor performance data were collected in 1991 with a follow-up study occurring in 1996, and then indirect questionnaires (self-report) administered in 2001 and 2011. In 2011, 17 participants who were identified as either having high motor proficiency (HMP) or low motor proficiency (LMP) in 1991 completed a series of 4 questionnaires. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences between groups for motor skill proficiency, PA, or sedentary behavior, and whether these outcomes were related across ages. Motor skill proficiency at age 6 was related to self-reported proficiency at age 16 (r = .77, p = .006), and self-reported proficiency between 16 and 26 years (r = .85, p = .001). Motor skill proficiency at age 6 was positively associated with leisure time PA at age 26 in females and participants in the HMP group. The results may provide preliminary evidence about the importance of how early motor skill proficiency relates to long-term PA. More research with larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the importance of motor skills over time.
Anders Raustorp and Andreas Fröberg
accelerometer data 12 and introduction of new generations of models may, however, be a burden when conducting long-term follow-up studies. As an alternative to accelerometers, the Yamax™ pedometer is a valid, reliable, and cost-effective activity device, providing daily PA outcome in terms of steps per day 13
Timo Suutama and Isto Ruoppila
Two follow-up studies were designed to analyze die cross-seciional and longitudinal associations between cognitive functioning and physical activity among two cohorts of elderly people. At baseline, over 90% of the 75- and 80-year-old populations were interviewed at home and almost 80% participated in the laboratory examinations. Cognitive functioning was assessed by psychometric tests and reaction time tasks, and physical activity was assessed by a subjective self-assessment as well as by objectively measured maximal walking speed. Among both cohorts, the decline over the 5-year period in cognitive functioning as well as in physical activity was generally small but statistically significant. The test-retest correlations were higher for the cognitive functioning scores than for the physical activity variables. The associations between cognitive functioning and physical activity were inconsistent and showed some differences between men and women.
Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt and Jaak Jürimäe
FB , Rääsk T , Jürimäe T , Jürimäe J . Vigorous physical activity rather than sedentary behaviour predicts overweight and obesity in pubertal boys: a 2-year follow-up study . Scand J Pub Health . 2015 ; 43 ( 3 ): 276 – 82 . doi:10.1177/1403494815569867 10.1177/1403494815569867 16. Matsudo
Kate R. Barrett, Pamela C. Allison and Rick Bell
This study is a follow up to one conducted in 1982 (Bell, Barrett, & Allison, 1985) and examines what a group of eight preservice physical education majors reported seeing in a 15-min games lesson with fifth-grade students at the end of their professional preparation. As in the previous study, an analytic inductive strategy was employed to categorize the data at two levels of specificity. Results indicated that as individuals the preservice teachers recorded statements about the teacher, the students, and the lesson in combination, whereas in the 1982 study, they recorded statements about the students only or the students and the teacher. Level 2 analysis showed 66.1% of the reported statements were about the movement response of the children. This was in sharp contrast to the earlier study in which the preservice teachers made only 10% such statements. The percentage of statements recorded for the subcategory teaching techniques was fairly consistent across the two studies: 21.9% in the current study and 25.9% in the earlier one. Relatively few statements were made in any of the other categories. Preservice teachers at the end of their professional preparation report more observations (224 in contrast with 89), but questions remain why the observations exclude statements about the personal characteristics of students, classroom climate, and lesson elements.
Anders Raustorp, Kjell Svensson and Thommy Perlinger
Tracking refers to the tendency for individuals to maintain their rank in a group over time. The authors explored tracking of pedometer-determined physical activity. In October of 2000, 2003, and 2005, data of physical activity as steps per day were collected with sealed Yamax SW-200 pedometers (Tokyo, Japan) for 4 consecutive schooldays in 97 (46 boys and 51 girls) Swedish adolescents (mean age 12.7 in 2000). In general, tracking of pedometer-determined physical activity was low to moderate during adolescence. A sex difference, with boys expressing higher tracking, was seen. Moderate tracking was seen in the individuals who, according to recommendations, were insufficiently active.
Jeffrey A. McCubbin and John M. Dunn
This study examined the need for the preparation of leadership personnel in the area of adapted physical education within the USA. Data were collected on the advertised positions in the Chronicle of Higher Education between 1991-1998 compared to the numbers of personnel prepared during a previous, similar time period (1981-1989). During the 1991-1998 time period, 87 professionals completed dissertations related to adapted physical education, while 173 positions in institutions of higher education were advertised for professionals with expertise in adapted physical education. These data indicate that there continues to be a significant need for additional doctoral personnel trained in adapted physical education for college or university teaching positions in the United States. Evidence of a need for diversified, well-qualified training programs is offered. In addition, the authors suggest promising alternate approaches to assist in meeting the needs of qualified personnel in adapted physical education for leadership positions.
Sanna Sihvonen, Taina Rantanen and Eino Heikkinen
Changes in physical activity levels were followed over 5 years and the relationship between baseline physical activity and survival was investigated among residents of Jyväskylä. Baseline interviews were carried out for 109 men and 204 women age 75, and 67 men and 178 women age 80. At the time of the follow-up interviews 5 years later. 23 men and 37 women who were age 75 at baseline and 23 men and 50 women who were age 80 at baseline had died. Activity decreased significantly over the 5-year period in all groups. A greater proportion of women than men decreased their activity level in both age groups. Physical activity was significantly associated with better survival (p = .006) in the 80-year-old women, and a similar significant difference (p = .024) was observed among 75-year-old men. The differences in the survival curves in the other groups, although similar, were not statistically significant due to the small number of subjects and lack of statistical power.
Helen T. Douda, Konstantina V. Kosmidou, Ilias Smilios, Konstantinos A. Volaklis and Savvas P. Tokmakidis
This five-year follow-up nonrandomized controlled study evaluated community-based training and detraining on body composition and functional ability in older women. Forty-two volunteers (64.3 ± 5.1 years) were divided into four groups: aerobic training, strength training, combined aerobic and strength, and control. Body composition and physical fitness were measured at baseline, after nine months of training and after three months of detraining every year. After five years of training, body fat decreased, and fat free mass, strength, and chair test performance increased (p < .05) in all training groups. Training-induced favorable adaptations were reversed during detraining but, eventually, training groups presented better values than the control group even after detraining. Thus, nine months of annual training, during a five-year period, induced favorable adaptations on body composition, muscular strength, and functional ability in older women. Three months of detraining, however, changed the favorable adaptations and underlined the need for uninterrupted exercise throughout life.