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Diane E. Butterworth, David C. Nieman, Janice V. Butler and Jodi L. Herring

A group of marathon runners (290 males, 54 females, mean age 39.7 ± 0.7 years) who participated in the Los Angeles Marathon recorded their food and fluid intake throughout a 3-day period, with the time of day denoted for each entry. Investigators coded each subject's food intake according to six time periods: 5:OO-8:59 a.m., 9:00-1059 a.m., 11:OO a.m.-1:59 p.m., 2:00-359 p.m., 4:0&7:59 p.m., and 8:00 p.m.459 a.m. The average intake of the runners consisted of 314 ± 6 g (52.3%) carbohydrates, 83.2 + 2.0 g (30.7%) fat, and 99.7 ± 2.3 g (16.5%) protein. Time periods for breakfast (13.7%), lunch (23.8%), and supper (34.0%) accounted for 71.5% of total caloric intake, with snack time periods contributing 28.5%. Breakfast calories were 68.9 ± 0.9% carbohydrate and 20.4 + 0.7% fat in contrast to supper calories, which were 47.7 ± 0.8% and 31.8 ± 0.6%, respectively. A sizable proportion of the daily caloric intake of recreational marathon runners is contributed by snacks and food intake after 4:00 p.m.

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Antonio Paoli, Giuseppe Marcolin, Fabio Zonin, Marco Neri, Andrea Sivieri and Quirico F. Pacelli

Exercise and nutrition are often used in combination to lose body fat and reduce weight. In this respect, exercise programs are as important as correct nutrition. Several issues are still controversial in this field, and among them there are contrasting reports on whether training in a fasting condition can enhance weight loss by stimulating lipolytic activity. The authors’ purpose was to verify differences in fat metabolism during training in fasting or feeding conditions. They compared the effect on oxygen consumption (VO2) and substrate utilization, estimated by the respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), in 8 healthy young men who performed the same moderate-intensity training session (36 min of cardiovascular training on treadmill at 65% maximum heart rate) in the morning in 2 tests in random sequence: FST test (fasting condition) without any food intake or FED test (feeding condition) after breakfast. In both cases, the same total amount and quality of food was assumed in the 24 hr after the training session. The breakfast, per se, increased both VO2 and RER significantly (4.21 vs. 3.74 and 0.96 vs. 0.84, respectively). Twelve hours after the training session, VO2 was still higher in the FED test, whereas RER was significantly lower in the FED test, indicating greater lipid utilization. The difference was still significant 24 hr after exercise. The authors conclude that when moderate endurance exercise is done to lose body fat, fasting before exercise does not enhance lipid utilization; rather, physical activity after a light meal is advisable.

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Julie Masurier, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Stephanie Nicole Fearnbach, Charlotte Cardenoux, Valérie Julian, Céline Lambert, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie and David Thivel

 al., 2016c ). However, the potential role or exercise duration on the control of food intake and appetite sensations in children and adolescents has not been studied. In a study by Moore et al. ( 2004 ), 9- to 10-year-old healthy weight girls were asked to perform a 40-min (set at 75% of their maximal

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Ioná Zalcman Zimberg, Cibele Aparecida Crispim, Claudia Ridel Juzwiak, Hanna Karen Moreira Antunes, Ben Edwards, Jim Waterhouse, Sérgio Tufik and Marco Túlio de Mello

The objective of the study was to describe the food intake of adventure racers during a competition simulated in the laboratory. Ten male athletes with international experience in adventure races took part in the study. The experiment lasted 67 hr (total distance covered 477.3 km), but 3 athletes did not finish the race. Food intake was recorded throughout the simulation. Athletes’ total energy expenditure was greater than their total energy intake (24,516 vs. 14,738 kcal), and the athletes obtained significantly more energy from food than from supplements. Carbohydrate intake was below the recommendation of 0.5–1.0 g · kg−1 · hr−1. These results indicate that guidelines for multiday adventure races are needed.

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Tammie R. Ebert, David T. Martin, Brian Stephens, Warren McDonald and Robert T. Withers

Purpose:

To quantify the fluid and food consumed during a men’s and women’s professional road-cycling tour.

Methods:

Eight men (age 25 ± 5 y, body mass ± 7.4 kg, and height 177.4 ± 4.5 cm) and 6 women (age 26 ± 4 y, body mass ± 5.6 kg, and height 170.4 ± 5.2 cm) of the Australian Institute of Sport Road Cycling squads participated in the study. The men competed in the 6-d Tour Down Under (Adelaide, Australia), and the women, in the 10-d Tour De L’Aude (Aude, France). Body mass was recorded before and immediately after the race. Cyclists recalled the number of water bottles and amount of food they had consumed.

Results:

Men and women recorded body-mass losses of ~2 kg (2.8% body mass) and 1.5 kg (2.6% body mass), respectively, per stage during the long road races. Men had an average fluid intake of 1.0 L/h, whereas women only consumed on average 0.4 L/h. In addition, men consumed CHO at the rate suggested by dietitians (average CHO intake of 48 g/h), but again the women failed to reach recommendations, with an average intake of ~21 g/h during a road stage.

Conclusions:

Men appeared to drink and eat during racing in accordance with current nutritional recommendations, but women failed to reach these guidelines. Both men and women finished their races with a body-mass loss of ~2.6% to 2.8%. Further research is required to determine the impact of this loss on road-cycling performance and thermoregulation.

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Mary K. Martin, David T. Martin, Gregory R. Collier and Louise M. Burke

We estimated self-reported energy intake (EI) and cycling energy expenditure (CEE) during racing and training over 26 days (9 days recovery [REC], 9 days training [TRN], and 8 days racing [RACE], which included a 5-day stage race) for 8 members of the Australian National Training Squad [mean ± SD; 25.1 ± 4.0 years, 59.2 ± 4.4 kg, 3.74 ± 0.24 L · min−1 V̇O2peak, 13.6 ± 4.5 % Body fat (%Bfat)]. After 70 days of training and racing, average body mass increased by 1.1 kg (95%CI 0.5 to 1.7 kg; p < .01) and average %Bfat decreased by 0.9% (95%CI –1.7 to –0.1%; p < .05). These minor changes, however, were not considered clinically significant. CEE was different between RACE, TRN, and REC (2.15 ± 0.18 vs. 1.73 ± 0.25 vs. 0.72 ± 0.15 MJ · d−1, p < .05). Reported EI for RACE and TRN were higher than REC (14.87 ± 3.03, 13.70 ± 4.04 vs.11.98 ± 3.57 MJ · d−1, p < .05). Reported intake of carbohydrate for RACE and TRN were also higher than REC (588 ± 122, 536 ± 130 vs. 448 ± 138 g · d−1, p < .05). Reported intake of fat (59 ± 21–68 ± 21 g · d−1) was similar during RACE, TRN, and REC, whereas protein intake tended to be higher during TRN (158 ± 49 g · d−1) compared to RACE and REC (136 ± 33; 130 ± 33 g · d−1). There was a relationship between average CEE and average EI over the 26 days (r = 0.77, p < .05), but correlations between CEE and EI for each of the women varied (r =–0.02 to 0.67). There was a strong trend for an inverse relationship between average EI and %Bfat (r = –.68, p = .06, n = 8). In this study, increases in reported EI during heavy training and racing were the result of an increase in carbohydrate intake. Most but not all cyclists modulated EI based on CEE. Research is required to determine whether physiological or psychological factors are primarily responsible for the observed relationship between CEE and EI and also the inverse correlation between %Bfat and EI.

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Edith Filaire, Alain Massart, Jiewen Hua and Christine Le Scanff

Purpose:

The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations.

Methods:

Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days’ rest.

Results:

Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p > .05) in the DE group as compared with the group without DE. Although in both groups, sAA concentrations presented a decrease in the first 30 min after awakening, and then progressively rose toward the afternoon, DE players exhibited reduced concentrations of the sAA with a decrease in its overall day secretion. Moreover, they showed a higher overall day secretion of salivary cortisol and a higher Cortisol Awakening Response.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is impaired whereas the cortisol awakening response is enhanced. The long-term consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.

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Grzegorz Raczyński, Jan Czeczelewski, Maciej Skład and Romuald Stupnicki

The aim of the study was to establish the relationships between energy intake and dietary quality with somatic variables and physical fitness. Energy intake and nutrition quality were assessed from 24-hr dietary recall questionnaires, and physical fitness was measured by applying the EUROFIT tests. Interrelationships between all those variables (simple, partial, and multiple correlation coefficients) were computed from standardized values. The somatic and physical fitness variables related more strongly on the nutrition quality than on the energy intake. Well-nourished children were taller, heavier, and more physically fit than the poorly nourished ones. We believe that dietary quality affected physical fitness indirectly by influencing somatic development. Energy intake did not contribute significantly to the total variance of the physical fitness factor.

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Katriona J.M O’Donoghue, Paul A. Fournier and Kym J. Guelfi

Although the manipulation of exercise and dietary intake to achieve successful weight loss has been extensively studied, it is unclear how the time of day that exercise is performed may affect subsequent energy intake. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of exercise performed in the morning compared with an equivalent bout of exercise performed in the afternoon on short-term energy intake. Nine healthy male participants completed 3 trials: morning exercise (AM), afternoon exercise (PM), or control (no exercise; CON) in a randomized counterbalanced design. Exercise consisted of 45 min of treadmill running at 75% VO2peak. Energy intake was assessed over a 26-hr period with the participants eating ad libitum from a standard assortment of food items of known quantity and composition. There was no significant difference in overall energy intake (M ± SD; CON 23,505 ± 6,938 kJ, AM 24,957 ± 5,607 kJ, PM 24,560 ± 5,988 kJ; p = .590) or macronutrient preferences during the 26-hr period examined between trials. Likewise, no differences in energy intake or macronutrient preferences were observed at any of the specific individual meal periods examined (i.e., breakfast, lunch, dinner) between trials. These results suggest that the time of day that exercise is performed does not significantly affect short-term energy intake in healthy men.

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Jessica S. West, Tom Ayton, Karen E. Wallman and Kym J. Guelfi

Ingestion of an acute dose of phosphate has been shown to attenuate energy intake in the subsequent meal. This raises the question of whether the practice of phosphate supplementation over a number of days by athletes to enhance performance also influences energy intake. This study investigated the effect of 6 d of phosphate supplementation on appetite and energy intake, as well as aerobic capacity, in trained individuals. Twenty participants completed two 6-d phases of supplementation with either sodium phosphate (50 mg/kg of fat-free mass per day) or a placebo in a double-blinded, counterbalanced design. On Days 1, 2, and 6 of supplementation, a laboratory meal was provided to assess appetite and ad libitum energy intake. All other food and drink consumed during each supplementation phase were recorded in a food diary. After the 6 d of supplementation, peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) was assessed. There was no difference in energy intake at the laboratory meal after an acute dose (i.e., on Day 1; placebo 2,471 ± 919 kJ, phosphate 2,353 ± 987 kJ; p = .385) or prolonged supplementation with sodium phosphate (p = .581) compared with placebo. Likewise, there was no difference in VO2peak with phosphate supplementation (placebo 52.6 ± 5.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1, phosphate 53.3 ± 6.1 ml · kg−1 · min−1; p = .483). In summary, 6 d of sodium phosphate supplementation does not appear to influence energy intake. Therefore, athletes supplementing with sodium phosphate can do so without hindering their nutritional status. However, given that phosphate supplementation failed to improve aerobic capacity, the ergogenic benefit of this supplement remains questionable.