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Craig A. Horswill

Amateur wrestlers practice weight loss for ergogenic reasons. The effects of rapid weight loss on aerobic performance are adverse and profound, but the effects on anaerobic performance are equivocal Anaerobic performance—strength and power—may be the most relevant type of performance to the wrestler. Maintenance of or even small decrements in anaerobic performance may translate into improvements in performance relative to the weight class, the factor by which wrestlers are matched for competition. During the recovery period between the official weigh-in and competition, wrestlers achieve at least partial nutritional recovery, which appears to benefit performance. Successive bouts of (a) weight loss to make weight and (b) recovery for performance lead to weight cycling. There is speculation that weight cycling may contribute to chronic glycogen depletion, reductions in fat-free weight, a decrease in resting metabolic rate, and an increase in body fat. The latter two would augment the difficulty of losing weight for subsequent weigh-ins. Most research indicates that the suppressed resting metabolic rate with weight loss in wrestlers appears to be transient, but subsequent research is needed for confirmation.

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Holly Wethington, Claudia Flowers, Michael Turner and Rita DiGioacchino DeBate

Focusing on female triathletes, this study was an exploration of behaviors and attitudes that may lead to disordered eating among female triathletes. One hundred and eighty-eight female triathletes residing in the U.S. completed an Internet-based questionnaire comprised of measures for disordered eating, body size distortion and dissatisfaction, and food consumption. Statistically significant relationships were identified regarding Preoccupation with Weight and Food Consumption (r= 0.52, p=0.005), Oral Control and Food Consumption (r= 0.32, p=0.04), and Food Restriction and Food Consumption (r= −0.30, p=0.04). Body Size Distortion was also significantly correlated to Food Consumption (r= −0.19, p=0.01), especially among the Sprint distance competitors (r= −0.21, p=0.02). Based upon the findings we suggest food restriction, body size distortion, and disordered eating attitudes are apparent among female triathletes, especially those who are club level athletes and short distance competitors.

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Jose Morales, Carla Ubasart, Mónica Solana-Tramunt, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Luis-Millán González, David Fukuda and Emerson Franchini

first study to show a reduction in cognitive function by RT following RWL in judo athletes. Examples from the combat sports research literature show limited support for changes in RT following weight adjustment or food restriction. Kraemer et al 14 observed that RT performance in wrestlers was neither

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Michael N. Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E. Neves, Charles H. Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi and Akiva Leibowitz

cutting.” Common strategies used to “cut” weight include fluid and food restriction, prolonged sauna sessions, hot baths, diuretics, and exercise in vapor-impermeable suits to induce sweating. Competitors have been shown to lose 10% or more of their body weight in the week preceding competition and an

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

). Validation is lacking, and therefore, these alternative testing methods are not currently recommended. For track-and-field athletes, food avoidance based on dubious test results may introduce unnecessary food restriction and associated risks, which are discussed throughout this review. Established food

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Nenad Ponorac, Mira Popović, Dea Karaba-Jakovljević, Zorislava Bajić, Aaron Scanlan, Emilija Stojanović and Dragan Radovanović

.7 ± 0.4 Body mass index (kg/m) 22.5 ± 3.7 21.9 ± 2.3 23.0 ± 2.3 21.1 ± 1.7 22.6 ± 2.8 20.8 ± 3.8 Vegetarian diet 0 3 1 2 0 0 Food restriction/weight loss diet (last year) 3 5 1 1 1 2 *Significantly different to nonathletes ( p  < .05). **Significantly different to soccer athletes ( p  < .05). Laboratory

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Kayla M. Baker, Sean Healy, David J. Rice and Jeanette M. Garcia

associations between parents’ and adolescents’ health behaviors. Researchers have also investigated the effect of food restriction in the household. 32 This study found that parents of OWM and OWF reported dieting very often to lose weight, compared with parents of NWM and NWF. This could be a potential cause

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Kelley D. Henderson, Sarah A. Manspeaker and Zevon Stubblefield

neutrophils (4.3 10 3 /uL); urinalysis indicated the presence of white blood cells and blood (Table  2 ). The physician recommended continued hydration, no participation in physical activity, and referred her for a sports nutrition consult due to self-admission of binge eating and food restriction in addition

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Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster and Gavin Breslin

food restriction, passive and active dehydration, and in some cases drug abuse to make weight. The participants also elaborated on life as a jockey and how it affected their physical and mental health. Dave commented on the requirements from a nutritional perspective and also the resulting impact on

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

restriction and excessive exercise will enhance sport performance and are not, in fact, problematic. Indeed, certain aspects of sport, such as mental toughness and commitment to training, may exacerbate ED risk and behaviors (i.e., food restriction, excessive exercise), yet these factors are often normalized