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Evaluation of Food Provision and Nutrition Support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: The Opinion of Sports Nutrition Experts

Fiona Pelly, Nanna L. Meyer, Jeni Pearce, Sarah J. Burkhart, and Louise M. Burke

The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of postcompetition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

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“What Are You Eating?” Is the Influence of Fortnite Streamers Expanding Beyond the Game?

David Micallef, Bruno Schivinski, Linda Brennan, Lukas Parker, and Michaela Jackson

outside of social settings, gamers follow healthier food choices, despite the prevailing stereotype. For emerging adults, however, health literature is consistent on the impact of this life stage on dietary health. Emerging adults are more prone to reduce their fresh fruit and vegetable intake from their

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“Food First but Not Always Food Only”: Recommendations for Using Dietary Supplements in Sport

Graeme L. Close, Andreas M. Kasper, Neil P. Walsh, and Ronald J. Maughan

individualized dietary strategy to meet those goals, by the manipulation and periodization of fluid and nutrient intake, while also considering the strategic use of appropriate dietary supplements and sports foods.” Although there is no universally accepted definition of what dietary supplements and sports foods

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Habitual Dietary Nitrate Intake in Highly Trained Athletes

Kristin L. Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Floris C. Wardenaar, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Lex B. Verdijk

Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement among athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2–4 web-based 24-hr dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2- to 4-week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature. These were then used to calculate each athlete’s dietary nitrate intake from the web-based recalls. The median[IQR] habitual nitrate intake was 106[75–170] mg/d (range 19–525 mg/d). Nitrate intake correlated with energy intake (ρ = 0.28, p < .001), and strongly correlated with vegetable intake (ρ = 0.78, p < .001). In accordance, most of the dietary nitrate was consumed through vegetables, potatoes and fruit, accounting for 74% of total nitrate intake, with lettuce and spinach contributing most. When corrected for energy intake, nitrate intake was substantially higher in female vs male athletes (12.8[9.2–20.0] vs 9.4[6.2–13.8] mg/MJ; p < .001). This difference was attributed to the higher vegetable intake in female vs male athletes (150[88–236] vs 114[61–183] g/d; p < .001). In conclusion, median daily intake of dietary nitrate in highly trained athletes was 106 mg, with large interindividual variation. Dietary nitrate intake was strongly associated with the intake of vegetables. Increasing the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables in the diet might serve as an alternative strategy for nitrate supplementation.

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Development of a New Tool for Managing Performance Nutrition: The Athlete Food Choice Questionnaire

Rachael L. Thurecht and Fiona E. Pelly

There is a recent growing interest in better understanding the determinants of food choice in athletes, as this impacts their subsequent dietary intake, which in turn affects sports performance ( International Olympic Committee, 2011 ; Jeukendrup, 2017 ). Although athletes may be aware of

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Food Provision at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games: Expert Review and Future Recommendations

Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons

Food provision at major sporting events is an important and challenging task due to cultural, religious and sport-specific dietary requirements, and individual preferences of athletes. Despite many advances in the provision of food for major events, there continues to be challenges in catering for

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Food Selection Patterns of Bodybuilders

Wendy M. Sandoval and Vivian H. Heyward

This paper describes the changes in the food selection patterns of male (n=7) and female (n=12) bodybuilders as they prepared for competition. Noncompetition dietary data were obtained 6 to 17 weeks (M = 12.5 wks) prior to competition using a 3-day food record. Precompetition food intake was recorded for the 3 days preceding competition. Foods were classified using the Exchange System and three additional categories which included desserts, alcoholic beverages, and other beverages. The noncompetition diets of the bodybuilders contained servings from each exchange, with the largest number of selections coming from the meat and bread/starch exchanges. Choices from the milk and meat exchanges were almost exclusively low-fat or lean. Primarily complex carbohydrates and high-fiber foods were selected from the bread/starch exchange. The number of different food items reported over 3 days and the total number of food items were greater in the noncompetition diet than in the precompetition diet. Also, variety among food groups and within some of the exchange groups was less in the precompetition diet. Although there was not much variety in the precompetition diets of the bodybuilders, the average nutrient density of their diets exceeded the Index of Nutritional Quality for all nutrients except calcium and zinc.

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A Food First Approach to Carbohydrate Supplementation in Endurance Exercise: A Systematic Review

Kirsty M. Reynolds, Tom Clifford, Stephen A. Mears, and Lewis J. James

appropriate source of carbohydrate. This is an important consideration since there are a wide variety of supplemental and real food carbohydrate sources available to the athlete. Specific supplemental carbohydrate sources produced for athletes include drinks, gels, and chews/sweets, while real food options

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Sports Dietitians Australia Position Statement: Nutrition for Exercise in Hot Environments

Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard, and Louise M. Burke

assessment/change in body mass Can be completed independently by athletes and low cost Can be confounded by food intake and fecal losses, and misinterpreted if athlete commences exercise hyperhydrated. Can overestimate total body water losses in ultra-endurance (>4 hr) exercise, requiring correction for

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Sports Foods and Dietary Supplements for Optimal Function and Performance Enhancement in Track-and-Field Athletes

Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon, and Louise M. Burke

Numerous nutritional products are marketed with claims of optimizing athlete health and function and/or enhancing performance. Products that fall under the banner of “Sports Foods” or “Dietary Supplements,” may be used to support performance during training and competition or for enhancing aspects