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Fiona Pelly, Nanna L. Meyer, Jeni Pearce, Sarah J. Burkhart, and Louise M. Burke

The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of postcompetition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Floris C. Wardenaar, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Lex B. Verdijk

Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement among athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2–4 web-based 24-hr dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2- to 4-week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature. These were then used to calculate each athlete’s dietary nitrate intake from the web-based recalls. The median[IQR] habitual nitrate intake was 106[75–170] mg/d (range 19–525 mg/d). Nitrate intake correlated with energy intake (ρ = 0.28, p < .001), and strongly correlated with vegetable intake (ρ = 0.78, p < .001). In accordance, most of the dietary nitrate was consumed through vegetables, potatoes and fruit, accounting for 74% of total nitrate intake, with lettuce and spinach contributing most. When corrected for energy intake, nitrate intake was substantially higher in female vs male athletes (12.8[9.2–20.0] vs 9.4[6.2–13.8] mg/MJ; p < .001). This difference was attributed to the higher vegetable intake in female vs male athletes (150[88–236] vs 114[61–183] g/d; p < .001). In conclusion, median daily intake of dietary nitrate in highly trained athletes was 106 mg, with large interindividual variation. Dietary nitrate intake was strongly associated with the intake of vegetables. Increasing the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables in the diet might serve as an alternative strategy for nitrate supplementation.

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Rachael L. Thurecht and Fiona E. Pelly

There is a recent growing interest in better understanding the determinants of food choice in athletes, as this impacts their subsequent dietary intake, which in turn affects sports performance ( International Olympic Committee, 2011 ; Jeukendrup, 2017 ). Although athletes may be aware of

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Wendy M. Sandoval and Vivian H. Heyward

This paper describes the changes in the food selection patterns of male (n=7) and female (n=12) bodybuilders as they prepared for competition. Noncompetition dietary data were obtained 6 to 17 weeks (M = 12.5 wks) prior to competition using a 3-day food record. Precompetition food intake was recorded for the 3 days preceding competition. Foods were classified using the Exchange System and three additional categories which included desserts, alcoholic beverages, and other beverages. The noncompetition diets of the bodybuilders contained servings from each exchange, with the largest number of selections coming from the meat and bread/starch exchanges. Choices from the milk and meat exchanges were almost exclusively low-fat or lean. Primarily complex carbohydrates and high-fiber foods were selected from the bread/starch exchange. The number of different food items reported over 3 days and the total number of food items were greater in the noncompetition diet than in the precompetition diet. Also, variety among food groups and within some of the exchange groups was less in the precompetition diet. Although there was not much variety in the precompetition diets of the bodybuilders, the average nutrient density of their diets exceeded the Index of Nutritional Quality for all nutrients except calcium and zinc.

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Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons

Food provision at major sporting events is an important and challenging task due to cultural, religious and sport-specific dietary requirements, and individual preferences of athletes. Despite many advances in the provision of food for major events, there continues to be challenges in catering for

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon, and Louise M. Burke

Numerous nutritional products are marketed with claims of optimizing athlete health and function and/or enhancing performance. Products that fall under the banner of “Sports Foods” or “Dietary Supplements,” may be used to support performance during training and competition or for enhancing aspects

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Constance Georgiou, Nancy Betts, Terri Hoos, and Marty Glenn

Health experts recommend merging a healthy diet and adequate physical activity into one behavior. This study compared attitudes about foods, recent dietary changes, and food choices of 319 18- to 24-year-olds, who defined themselves as exercisers or nonexercisers. Subjects were recruited by telephone and were mailed questionnaires that asked about factors influencing food selection and changes in intake of high-fat foods. Exercisers considered it more important to eat nutritious foods; ate more nutrient-dense, low-fat foods; and more frequently met the Food Guide Pyramid recommended grain and fruit intakes than nonexercisers. Female exercisers more often perceived foods high in calcium to be fattening and not healthful, and they reported decreasing their intake of high-fat foods more than did female nonexercisers. Some merging of healthy diet and exercise behavior is evident among the young adult exercisers in this study. Nutrition and exercise messages targeted to young women should emphasize low-calorie calcium sources.

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Paul J. Moughan, Malcolm F. Fuller, Kyoung-Sik Han, Arie K. Kies, and Warren Miner-Williams

Bioactive peptides either present in foods or released from food proteins during digestion have a wide range of physiological effects, including on gut function. Many of the bioactive peptides characterized to date that influence gut motility, secretion, and absorption are opioid agonists or antagonists. The authors review a body of experimental evidence that demonstrates an effect of peptides from food proteins on endogenous (nondietary) protein flow at the terminal ileum of simple-stomached mammals, including adult humans. At least some dietary peptides (1000-5000 Da) significantly enhance the loss of protein from the small intestine, causing an increased amount of protein to enter the colon. Food-derived peptides appear to either stimulate protein secretion into the gut lumen or inhibit amino acid reabsorption or influence both processes simultaneously. The effect of dietary peptides on small-intestine secretory-protein dynamics is discussed in the context of the major components of gut endogenous protein, sloughed cells, enzymatic secretions, mucin, and bacterial protein.

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard, and Louise M. Burke

assessment/change in body mass Can be completed independently by athletes and low cost Can be confounded by food intake and fecal losses, and misinterpreted if athlete commences exercise hyperhydrated. Can overestimate total body water losses in ultra-endurance (>4 hr) exercise, requiring correction for

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Diane E. Butterworth, David C. Nieman, Janice V. Butler, and Jodi L. Herring

A group of marathon runners (290 males, 54 females, mean age 39.7 ± 0.7 years) who participated in the Los Angeles Marathon recorded their food and fluid intake throughout a 3-day period, with the time of day denoted for each entry. Investigators coded each subject's food intake according to six time periods: 5:OO-8:59 a.m., 9:00-1059 a.m., 11:OO a.m.-1:59 p.m., 2:00-359 p.m., 4:0&7:59 p.m., and 8:00 p.m.459 a.m. The average intake of the runners consisted of 314 ± 6 g (52.3%) carbohydrates, 83.2 + 2.0 g (30.7%) fat, and 99.7 ± 2.3 g (16.5%) protein. Time periods for breakfast (13.7%), lunch (23.8%), and supper (34.0%) accounted for 71.5% of total caloric intake, with snack time periods contributing 28.5%. Breakfast calories were 68.9 ± 0.9% carbohydrate and 20.4 + 0.7% fat in contrast to supper calories, which were 47.7 ± 0.8% and 31.8 ± 0.6%, respectively. A sizable proportion of the daily caloric intake of recreational marathon runners is contributed by snacks and food intake after 4:00 p.m.