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Lauren C. Benson, Stephen C. Cobb, Allison S. Hyngstrom, Kevin G. Keenan, Jake Luo and Kristian M. O’Connor

Trips are one of the greatest causes of falls and are the result of insufficient clearance between the foot and floor. 1 Both low foot clearance and high foot clearance variability are suspected to increase the risk of falling. 2 The local minimum approach is a common way to determine foot

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Chanel T. LoJacono, Ryan P. MacPherson, Nikita A. Kuznetsov, Louisa D. Raisbeck, Scott E. Ross and Christopher K. Rhea

older adults with poor mobility ( Shema et al., 2014 ). While the use of virtual obstacles during treadmill gait training appears promising, it is not yet clear how foot clearance over a virtual obstacle changes with increased training/exposures. It is also not clear whether these performance changes

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Dennis Hamacher, Daniel Hamacher, Kathrin Rehfeld, Anita Hökelmann and Lutz Schega

Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motorcognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance.

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Marcos R. Kunzler, Emmanuel S. da Rocha, Maarten F. Bobbert, Jacques Duysens and Felipe P. Carpes


In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to exercise. Here we determined acute changes in foot clearances during stair walking in sedentary (n = 15) and physically active older adults (n = 15) after prolonged exercise.


Kinematic data were acquired during negotiation with a 3-steps staircase while participants walked at preferred speed, before and after 30 min walking at preferred speed and using a treadmill. Foot clearances were compared before and after exercise and between the groups.


Sedentary older adults presented larger (0.5 cm for lead and 2 cm for trail leg) toe clearances in ascent, smaller (0.7 cm) heel clearance in the leading foot in descent, and larger (1 cm) heel clearance in the trailing foot in descent than physically active.


Sedentary older adults negotiate stairs in a slightly different way than active older adults, and 30 min walking at preferred speed does not affect clearance in stair negotiation.

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Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega and Astrid Zech

variability of minimum foot clearances (local minimum foot-ground distance during swing phases) or minimum toe clearance (MTC) may be an even more promising gait parameter for gauging gait control and perhaps eventually the risk of falling. In a recent review ( Barrett, Mills, & Begg, 2010 ), it was suggested

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Deborah A. Jehu, Yves Lajoie and Nicole Paquet

foot clearance was calculated by taking the minimum vertical distance between the dominant toe as well as the swing toe leading up to the anterior side of the obstacle, as well as the minimum distance between the trailing swing heel and the posterior side of the obstacle. A marker was placed on the

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Daniel M. Grindle, Lauren Baker, Mike Furr, Tim Puterio, Brian Knarr and Jill Higginson

’Oro L , Taylor S . Minimum foot clearance during walking: strategies for the minimization of trip-related falls . Gait Posture . 2007 ; 25 ( 2 ): 191 – 198 . doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.03.008 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.03.008 23. Brand RA . The biomechanics and motor control of human gait: normal

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Rob van der Straaten, Oren Tirosh, William A. (Tony) Sparrow and Rezaul Begg

foot clearance during walking: strategies for the minimisation of trip-related falls . Gait Posture . 2007 ; 25 : 191 – 198 . PubMed ID: 16678418 doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.03.008 3. Patla A , Rietdyk S . Visual control of limb trajectory over obstacles during locomotion: effect of obstacle

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Deborah A.M. Jehu, Nicole Paquet and Yves Lajoie

feet apart to two steps after the last obstacle. Minimum foot clearance was calculated by taking the minimum vertical distance between the dominant toe as well as the swing toe leading up to the anterior side of the obstacle, as well as the lowest point between the trailing swing heel and the posterior

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Edgar R. Vieira, Ruth Tappen, Sareen S. Gropper, Maria T. Severi, Gabriella Engstrom, Marcio R. de Oliveira, Alexandre C. Barbosa and Rubens A. da Silva

strength, whereas the Tai Chi group showed greater improvement in balance ( Son et al., 2016 ). In our study, completing the exercise program was also associated with increased dorsiflexion strength. Greater dorsiflexion during gait increases foot clearance ( Sato, 2015 ), possibly reducing the risk of